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পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ

Spices

Spices

The plants or plant parts which are used to enhance the flavor, aroma, taste, piquancy and preservation of some special human foods such as different type of curries and processed foods ( Jam, Jelly, sauce, pickle, ketch –up etc)

Importance of spices

1. Demand

Spices are highly demandable crops due to its high value such as one tola saffron is sold one lac taka

2. Profit

Benefit from onion cultivation in one hectare of land is 70-80 thousand taka. On the other hand, benefit from Boro rice cultivation in one hectare of land is 20-30 thousands taka only

3. Medicinal value

Garlic contains alicin which is non –protein amino acid and it breaks down cholesterol in the human body. It has also anti-microbial properties. Chilli has anti –oxidant properties. Turmeric has preservation properties. Turmeric is also used for skin smoothness

4. Taste

It adds tang and flavor of human food

5. Appetizer (iywP KviK)

Spices acts as well appetizer

6. Spices intensity increase salivary flow and secrete ptyalin

Present status of spices in Bangladesh

In the world, about 40 types of spices are cultivated. In our country 27 types of spices are cultivated. About 1% of total cropped area is used for spices production purpose and the land under spices production is 144ooo hectare. Total production from this land is 301 metric tons. Our demand is 750 metric tons. We can provide only 40% of our demand. BARI already established a spices Research centre in Bogra. They already released 2 improved turmeric varieties, Dimla and Shindury. One Black piper variety, Jaintapur variety. One coriander variety, BARI Dhania-1. And two onion varieties BARI Piaj-1, BARI Piaj-2. Besides this BAU, BSMRAU are also carrying out their research activities on spices.

Problems of growing spices in BD

1. Problems in relation to production

Most of the spices are climate specific. All types of spices are not possible to grow in all seasons all over the country. Spices like/choose high fertile and productive land for production. This type of land is only 30% in our country. Nutrient deficiencies are other important problems of growing spices in Bangladesh

2. Problems in relation to management

* Lack of proper knowledge about insect and proper diseases of different spices

* Lack of knowledge of pruning, training, dis-budding and different types of intercultural operations / after cares

* Lack of knowledge about processing and storage

3. Problems in relation to the interest of people

* People are less interested to grow spices due to lack of information about production, processing, marketing and their benefits

4. Problems in relation seed and variety

* Reliable seeds are not available every where in BD

* Lack of reliable high yielding variety

5. Problems in relation to research

* Lack of germplasm of spices and fund for doing research work

* Lack of trained man power and scientific instruments

* Transfer of scientists is another problem in research

Prospects of growing spices in BD.

1. Climate:

Most of the major spices can be grown successfully in BD due to suitable and favorable climatic condition

2. Temperature range:

Average lowest temperature is 100C and highest is 350 C, as a result we can grow most of the spices in our country /BD

3. Rainfall:

Average rainfall in our country is 47"-136"(it depends on area and season) out of these rainfall, 95%. Highest rainfall is in sylhet and lowest in (Natore ) rajshahi

4. Availability of labors

Required manpower is available to grow spices in Bangladesh chiefly

5. Demand of the products

There is a high demand of spices crops in Bangladesh

6. Utilization of fallow land

There are many fallow lands in Bangladesh and if those should be brought under spices cultivation resulting production of spices which will increase

7. Price of the product :

The spices are sold in the market at high price, so cultivated spices crop will may be benefited

8. Yield

Yield of spices crop is satisfactory in Bangladesh compare to other country of the world

Factors affecting growing spices in BD

1. Temperature

Both high and low temperature is harmful to spices production. Stigmatal fluid dries up if temperature raises high. It affects most of the spices. In case of chili, if temperature is high and relative humidity is low, balance between absorption of water from soil and transpiration may be hampered. As a result, flower and immature fruits are to be sheded. Very high and very low temperature is the reason for small and seedless fruit

2. Rainfall

Flower of chili is to be shed due to high rainfall and more cloudy sky. Disease infection and insect infestation increase in high relative humidity

3. Land

Most spices prefer high fertile land. chili, bulb and rhizome type spices cannot tolerate water logged condition. Most of the spices prefer sandy loam and loamy soil. Bulb and Rhizome type spices cannot be grown in clay and clay loam soil.

4. Day length

Some crops prefer clear sun light and some do not prefer clear sunlight such as garlic, turmeric, and zinger. In our country onion is mainly winter crop. It needs short day length for bulb formation. Our local variety is suitable to grow in this regard. Beside this, BARI Piaj-2 is grown in summer season. On the other hand, Indian onion bulbs available in BD market are not grown in our country because those onions need 16 hour day length to form bulbs. For this reason, Indian bulbs are not grown in Bangladesh

Classification of spices

1. On the basis of time of use

a. Spices

It is used at the beginning of cooking curry. E.g. Onion, garlic, zinger, Chili etc

b. Condiments

It is used at the end of the cooking curry or meat. E.g. cinnamon, cumin, coriander, clove

c. Culinary (bulb) herbs

It is used freshly without cooking. E.g. onion, mint, coriander

2. On the basis of use of plant parts

a. Leaf: Indian cassis /Bea leaf

b. Bark / Phloem: Cinnamon (`viy wPwb)

c. Flower bud: Clove (lobong)

d. Stigma and style : saffron

e. Fruit: chili, Black piper, elachi

f. Seed: black cumin ( jira) , cumin, fenugreek(‡gw_) etc.

g. Carnel: nutmeg (Rvqdj)

h. Root : Angelica(ivbœvq I Jl‡a e¨eüZ myMwÜ jZvwe‡kl)

i. Bulb: Onion

j. Rhizome: zinger, turmeric

k. Bud: Garlic (imyb)

3. On the basis of life cycle

a. Annual: coriander (awbqv )leaf

b. Biennial: onion

c. Perennial: turmeric (njy`), zinger, cinnamon

4. On the basis of demand

a. Major: onion, garlic, zinger, chilli etc

b. Minor: saffron, nutmeg

5. On the basis of family

a. Alliaceae: onion, garlic

b. Crucifereae: mustard

c. Graminae: lemon grass

d. Iridiaceae: saffron

e. Lauraceae: cinnamon

f. Leguminosae: fenugreek

g. Myrtaceae: clove

h. Myristaceae: nutmeg

i. Orchidaceae: vanilla

j. Piperaceae: black piper

k. Solanaceae: chilli

l. Umbelliferae: coriander leaf

m. Zingeberaceae

Onion (allium |)

Pungent (Svj) material – Allyele propyle disulphite (C6H12S2)

1% in bulb, 0.46% in leaf, vitamin A and C are found in leaf and flower stock

It is used as spices and salad (mvjv`) crops. It also may be 3 types on the basis of use

1. Spices

2. Condiment(AvPvi)

3. Culinary herb(iÜkvjv m¤^Üxq)

Presence status of onion is BD;

Lands under onion cultivation 34000 ha. About 1.8 lace metric tons is production. Demand 4.5-6.0 lac metric ton. Annual production 1.8 lac metric ton. Average yield 4.07 ton/ ha

Description

Onion flower is a complete and bisexual / hermaphrodite. But they perform their pollination through cross pollination (100%).

Why cross pollination:

If male and female flower are not matured in same time, then self pollination is not caused.

In case of onion, male flower mature first or female flower mature first. So, cross pollination is causes

In case of onion, cross pollination is causes because it is dicogamy in nature ( Dicogamy means one male flower or female flower are not developed at a time, if male portion is developed earlier than female portion is called protendry, and if female protion is developed earlier than male portion is called protogymy) . In case of onion protendry is developed earlier than protogymy

Onion is a thermo sensitive plant

* Onion seeds germinate at 20-250C

* Provegetative growth is at 15-250C

* Production of fleshy scale leaf at 5-100C

* Subsequent growth and development at 10-150C

* Maturity at 20-300C

In case of temperate variety:

Temperature will be less than 5-70C in each step, from this above information or data, it is proved that onion is a thermo-sensitive plant

Onion is a photo sensitive plant.

In case of tropical variety it is day neutral. On the other hand, temperate varieties are highly day-length sensitive. It cannot produce bulb less than 16 hr day length

Temperate

Tropical

Yields is high

Yields is low

Dry matter is low

Dry matter is high

Pungent material low

Pungent material high

Storage ability low

Storage ability high

Day length sensitive

Day length neutral

Varieties of onion

1. Faridpur vati

* Splitting type

* Reddish brown in color

* Medium yielder

* Pungent fairly

* Fair in storage

* Dry matter content medium

* Seeds and bulbs are produced in faridpur

2. Taherpuri

* It is single type

* Color is red

* Best yielder

* Pungent material high

* Dry matter content high

* Storage ability high

* Found in Baghmara in Rajshahi, produced seeds in Baghmara

3. Salta

* Splitting type

* Whitish in color

* Medium yielder

* Pungent material low

* Storage capability is poor

* Dry matter content poor

* Found in foridpur, Jessore, Shatkira

* Seed is produced in Faridpur

* BD produce 50% onion seed at demand

4. Kailash nagor/ nagori

* Single type

* Reddish white in color

* Pungent material high

* Dry matter content high

* Storage capability high

* It is cultivated for seed and bulb in pabna

* It also found in Notor

5. Zhitka

* Single type or non splitting

* Red in color

* Low yielder

* Pungent material high

* Dry matter high

* Storage capacity high

* Cultivated for seed and bulb in Manikganj

Production technology of onion

1. Land preparation

5-6 ploughing followed by laddering, leveling and the soil will be loose and friable with optimum” jo” condition

2. Soil pH: 5.3- 7.0

3. Methods of planting / production system

* Seed to bulb

* Bulb to bulb

* Bulb to seed

Seed to bulb method

It is two types

* Direct sowing method

About 3-5% onion is grown in our country through this method

Advantage

v Production cost is low

v Labor cost is low

v No need of seed bed preparation

Disadvantage

v Seed rate is high and about doubling of transplanting

v Plant spacing is not maintained

v Bolting occurs about 60-70

v Yield is low

v Intercultural operations are not easy

v Growth of plant is not uniform due to lack of proper space, light , air , food etc

* Transplanting

About 80-85 % onion is produced in BD through transplanting method

Advantage

v Seed rate is 2.5-3kg/ hectare

v Bolting occurs about 3-10%

v Intercultural operation is easy

v Plants get equal light, air, space due to maintain proper plant spacing

Disadvantage

v Labor cost is high

v Skill manpower is needed

v Sometimes seed do not germinate in seed bed

Bulb to bulb method

About 10-12% onion is produce in this method in BD

Advantage

v Less time is taken to grow the plant( 2-2.5 month )

v High market value

v About 100% bolting occurs

v It comes to the market in early season

v To full-fill the demand of the people short onion season

Disadvantage

v Seed rate is very high

v Production cost is high

v Storage capability low

4. Manure and Fertilizer

Plant spacing is 25cm * 10cm or 20cm *10cm for onion

5. Plant spacing

Cowdung : 10-12 tons/ hertare

Urea: 120kg/ hectare

T.S.P: 100kg/ hectare

MOP: 160kg/ hectare