“Agriculture is the root of culture”
CONCEPT OF AGRICULTURE & AGRONOMY
The term “ Agriculture” has been derived from two latin words ‘ ager ‘ meaning land or field and
‘ cultura ’ meaning cultivation. Therefore literary meaning of Agriculture is the cultivation of land or field. But in the real sense, Agriculture is the science and art which deals with the production, improvement, protection. processing, marketing and extension of crops, livestock and fishes by the proper utilization of natural resources (i.e. land, light, air, temperature, water, humidity etc.) for the benefit of mankind.
The word “agronomy” is derived from two Greek words ‘agros’ meaning field and ‘namos’ meaning management. Therefore literary meaning of Agronomy is the management of field. Agronomy is the branch of Agricultural science which deals with the production of field crops through proper management of soil, without deteriorating soil fertility.
In these days of specialization and under continuous advancement of agricultural science “ Agronomy “ may be defined as the branch of agricultural science which deals with manipulation and / or exploitation of basis ingredients of agriculture- seed, soil, water and environment to suit crop production under particular agro-climatic & agro-ecological condition and tailoring, reshaping and finally assembling the component of crop production technologies developed by Agronomists and non-agronomists into packages of practices acceptable by the farming community.
Agronomy is the culture of land for the production of field crops by the proper utilization of natural resources. (land, light, air, water).
Difference / Comparison between Agriculture and Agronomy
1. Agriculture is the science and art of forming including the work of cultivating the soil, producing crops, raising livestock and fisheries.
1. Agronomy is the science and art of field crop production by the proper utilization of natural resources.
2. The term ‘Agriculture’ has been derived from two latin words ‘Ager’ and ‘culture’ ; ager meaning land and culture meaning cultivation.
2. The word ‘Agronomy’ has been derived from two greek words ‘agros’ meaning field and ‘nomos’ meaning management.
3. It is the branch of applied science.
3. It is the branch of Agriculture
4. Agriculture deals with the interaction of all environmental factors i.e. water, heat, light, air, and crops, livestock and fisheries.
4. Agronomy deals with the interaction between crop and environment.
Origin and History of Agriculture
“Agriculture is the root of culture”
Origin and History :
As stated by henry Feber:
“History celebrates battles in a bright way but is quite silent about the origin of agriculture which is the backbone of a nation.” So, it cannot be said with certainty when and where the first man put the land under the plough / cultivation.
However, agriculture is as old as the advance of human life. Records tell us that the agriculture was first taken up by the inhabitants of central Asia from where it traveled to Mediterranean countries like Egypt, Italy, and Greece and to India and the rest of the world.
The present status of agriculture has come through the evolutionary pathway of different distinct phases, those are given follows:-
1. Root grabbing stage / Primary / Primitive
2. Hunting stage
3. Fire and Iron weapon stage
4. Pastoral stage or Animal husbandry / Domestication
5. Crop husbandry or Agricultural stage.
1. Root Grabbing Stage :
This was the stage when man was living a primitive animal like existence. There was no knowledge of agriculture, but people fed on raw materials such as roots, berries, wild fruits and herbs etc.
2. Hunting Stage :
In this stage people started to use weapons like sticks, bones of animals, pieces of stones for hunting wild animals for food. They used to take raw meat in addition to roots etc.
3. Fire and Iron Weapon Stage :
The discovery of fire enabled the production of refined types of weapon from iron for hunting. In this stage roosted meat was taken instead of raw.
4. Pastoral Stage or Animal Husbandry:
In this stage the people did not start actual crop cultivation but started domesticating animals such as sheep and cattle (which is considered as a branch of agriculture). At first, animals to be domesticated were dogs and horses.
These were used mainly for guarding and hunting purposes. They started loading a nomadic style of life because they needed to move from one place to other in search of feeding materials i.e. pasture for their animals.
5. Crop Husbandry or Agricultural Stage :
At this stage people were discontented with nomadic life. They started settling at those places near rivers where irrigation facilities were available and started raising crops and domestic livestock. From this time, the crop husbandry or agricultural stage started as we know it.
Prior to the application of science, agriculture was purely carried out in the light of experience received from previous generations or from neighbor and this side of the picture is known as the art side of agriculture. Agriculture is thus an applied science which is hardly one century old.
Agrisilvipastoral system Silvipastoral system Agrisilviculture Horticulture Floriculture Olericulture Phonology Landscape Arboriculture Sericulture Fernery Agriculture Spices & condiments Plantation crops Agroforestry Agronomy Lac culture Sericulture Apiculture Apiculture Pisciculture Poultry (hen, duck and turkey) Sheep, goats and pigs Cows, buffaloes and horses Environment Soil management Crop husbandry Animal- farming Arable farming Hydroponic (Cultivation in water) Geoponic (Cultivation in earth) Aeroponic (Cultivation in air)
Spices & condiments
Poultry (hen, duck and turkey)
Sheep, goats and pigs
(Cultivation in water)
(Cultivation in earth)
(Cultivation in air)
Fig: Schematic presentation of branches of Agriculture.