এখন একটু কষ্ট করলেই টাকা আয় করা যাবে ঘরে বসে

পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ

Seed Certification Agency (SCA),NATIONAL SEED BOARD

Seed Certification Agency (SCA)

It has been internationally agreed that the Quality Seed production for various crops can be guaranteed under the banner of seed certification. Seed Certification and quality control, are integral and indispensable components of Seed technology. Seed Certification Agency is the only authorized body for quality control of all kinds of seeds in our country. The Seed Certification Agency was established in 1974 under Cereal Seed project as per provision of First Five Years plan (1973-78). The responsibility of this organization was limited only with the seeds produced by the public sector till Third Five Years Plan (1985- 90). In the Fourth Five Years Plan (1990- 95) its working jurisdiction was extended also to seed testing and certification of the seeds produced by private and NGO sector. Seed Certification Agency has been performing its role for full seed certification of four notified crops. (Rice, Wheat, Jute and Potato). The Agency certify and maintain seed quality through Field Inspection, Seed Testing and Variety Testing as per decision of the National Seed Board (NSB) and regulations Provided by the National Seed Policy, 1993, The Seeds (Amendment) Act, 1997 and Seed Rules 1998. At present there are three classes of Seeds (Breeder, Foundation and Certified) under the Seed Certification Program inn our country. Besides these, to make adequate quantities of quantity seeds available to the farmers, one more class of seed which is termed as Truthfully Labelled Seed (TLS). This kind of Seeds quality is maintained by SCA through market monitoring system.

Functions of Seed Certification Agency according to Seed (Amendment) Act, 1997 and Seed Rules 1998. In addition to the functions entrusted to the Certification Agency by the ordinance, the Agency shall-

(a)

certify seed of any notified kinds or varieties,

(b)

certify seed of other registered varieties.

(c)

outline the procedures for growing, processing, storage and labeling of seeds intended for certification and to ensure that the seed lots finally approved for certification are true to the variety and confirm to the standard regarding the germination percentage, purity percentage, moisture contents and such other components of seed quality for certification under these rules:

(d)

verify, upon receipt of an application for certification of any kind or variety of seed, that the seed source used for planting was authenticated by the Certification Agency and the record of purchase is in accordance with these rules and the fees have been paid;

(e)

inspect fields to ensure that the minimum standards for insulation, rouging, if necessary, and other factors specific to the kind or variety are maintained at all times, as well as ensure that seed borne diseases are not present in the field to a greater extent than those provided in the standards for certification,

(f)

inspect seed procession plants to see that the admixtures of other kinds and varieties are not introduced;

(g)

ensure that field inspection, seed processing plant inspection, analysis of samples and issue of certificate, including marking, labeling and sealing, are taken expeditiously;

(h)

monitor by post control sampling procedures the seeds quality as declared on the labes of seed containers offered for sale by seed Dealers and feed back results to the Seed Dealers to create awareness about quality;

Finally the field officers make a comparison between their observed values in the field and the values of field standards of different crops fixed by National seed Board (NSB), which is shown in appendix-1. They accept the field for certification, when the observed values come in conformity with the standard values, otherwise the fields are rejected.Seed Certification Procedure of SCA;To perform the working activities, the agency has three wings viz. Field Inspection, Seed Testing and Variety Testing. The Working procedure of these wings are described below:

1.Field Inspection Wing

Field Inspection Wing is an important wing headed by Principal Field Control Officer (PFCO). There are 4 (four) regional and 30 (thirty) Field Offices in different seed growing areas through out the country. Regional field officer supervise and monitor over all activities of the field Officers. The fields Officers certify the public, private and NGO;s sector seed growing plots through field inspection in such a ways-

(i) Verifying the Seed Source

(ii) Verifying isolation distance.

(iii) Timely Inspect the seed growing plots to metup field standard
(iv) Suggest to roughing operations properly,

Roles and Responsibilities of SCA according to Seed Policy, 1993.

* Advise NSB denotification of varieties for reasons of poor performance or disease and pest susceptibility;
* Help Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) in the promotion and use of improved seed of HYVs among farmers;
* Collect samples of truthfully labeled seeds throughout the country and check their declared standards through oppropriate tests.

The SCA has been entrusted with the responsibility to ensure supply of certified quality seeds to farmer. In doing so, the major focus of its responsibility was centered around the activities like field inspection for quality seed production, seed testing and issue of tags for all certified seeds. However, under the strengthening project of SCA its expanded roles include activities as follows:

* Advise seed producers on production, processing and quality control of seeds;

* Carry out post market quality control through inspection, testing.

* Collect data/ information on seed production, procession and quality control for use by the National Seed Board (NSB);

* Certify all breeder and Foundation Seeds of controlled crops;

* Certify seeds for seed enterprises as a services;


* Coordinate the variety evaluation and release mechanism for Notified crops;

(i)

carry out varietal description activities as a part of DUS tests (distinctness, uniformity and stability), and co-ordinate and organize multilocation trials for performance testing or varieties (VCU- value for cultivation and uses);

(j)

review and recommend from time to time minimum standards of seeds quality of different crops

(k)

carry out educational programmes designed to promote the production of certified seed including a publication listing seed Dealers and sources of certified seed;

(l)

maintain such records as may be necessary to verify that seed plated for the production of certified seed were eligible for such planting under these rules.

(m)

advise the Board on the denotification of varieties for reasons of poor performance or disease and pest susceptibility.

3. Seed Testing Wing

Seed testing wing is also an important wing comprising of (i) National Seed Testing Laboratory, Gazipur is headed by CST, (ii) Regional Seed Testing Laboratory (RSTL) Ishurdi, pabna is headed by Agronomist. Purity, Germination, Mosture and other tests are conducted by 6 seed Analysts in two laboratories. Seed Analysts are fully responsible to analysis the Seed samples which are collected from public, private and NGO's sector as well as market monitoring samples. Chief seed technologist supervise and monitor the over all activities of seed analysts. Actually seed testing wing involving to assurance of quality seeds. If the test result of the sample comes in a close conformity with the seed standard fixed by NSB, the representing seed lots of processing centers are accepted for certification., In case of sub-standard value of test result, the seed lots are rejected.

In addition to this the field officers pay to regular visit to the threashing floor, procession centre, seed lots arrangement, collect sample and infix Certification tag after getting satisfactory results from the seed testing laboratory. This wing is also involved in maintaining quality control of all sorts of seeds through market monitoring system.

Conclusion

Seed is the foundation of agriculture. With the use of certified quality seeds in the normal cultivation practices, yield of crops may be increased up to 10-15%. In order to co-ordinate the use of increased quality seed and ensure its production, supply and distribution, the SCA is striving hard to extend its collaboration and assistance in the total system of seed Certification and Quality Control in the country through.

* Implementation of the appropriate National Seed Policy,

* Development and implementation of the seed legislation system and international seed regulations.

* Improvement of technical know-how, skills by imparting training, visits and organizing seminars, workshops, symposium, etc. on seed activities.

* Implementation of the on going SCA-SID strengthening project.

ORGANOGRAM OF SCA

Director


Principal Seed Certification Officer

Seed Testing Wing(Seed Analysis)

Field Inspection Wing (Inspection Certification & Sampling

Variety Testing Wing (Grow-out Test DUS Test & VCU Test


NATIONAL SEED BOARD

1.

Chairman - Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture

2.

Member - Vice Chancellor, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)

3.

Member - Executive Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC)

4.

Member - Chairman, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC)

5.

Member - Director General, Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE)

6.

Member - Director General, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)

7.

Member - Director General, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)

8.

Member - Director General, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI)

9.

Member - Director General, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)

10.

Member - Director General, Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute (BSRI)

11.

Member - Executive Director, Cotton Development Board (CDB)

12.

Member - Director, Seed Pathology Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University

13.

Member - Member Director (Seed), Bangladesh Agriculture Development Corporation (BADC)

14.

Member - Director, Seed Certification Agency (SCA)

15.

Member - Director, Soil Resource Development Institute (SRDI)

16.

Member - Director, Plant Protection Wing, Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE)

17.

Member - Representative of the Ministry of Finance (Finance Division), not below the rank of Joint Secretary

18.

Member - Representative of the Private Seed Dealers and Merchants Association

19

Member - Representative of the Private Seed Growers

20

Member - Representative from the farmer's community

21.

Member Secretary - Director General, Seed Wing, Ministry of Agriculture

SEED STORAGE

The seeds are considered to be in storage from the moment they reach at physiological maturity until they germinate, or they are thrown away because they are dead or otherwise worthless.

Purpose of seed storage:

As, seeds are uniquely equipped to survive as a viable regenerative organisms until the time and place are right for the beginning of a new generation, so, the purpose of seed storage include-

- to preserve planting stocks from one season to the next

- to maintain seed quality for the longest duration possible

- to maintain germplasm over time for improved plant breeding program

- to supply seed in emergency case of seed or seedling damage caused due to natural or any other hazards.

Factors influencing the life span of seed:

A) Relative Humidity and Temperature:

The two most important factors that influence the life span of seeds are relative humidity and temperature. The effects of relative humidity (and its subsequent effect on seed moisture) and temperature of the storage environment are highly interdependent.

Seed moisture:

Seed moisture contents means that water is held by the seed. Generally, there three types of water in seed.

Bound water is tightly held to ionic groups such as amino or carboxyl groups and exists as a monolayer around macromolecules of the seed.

Adsorbed water is considered to exist in multilayers, loosely held by bonding to hydroxyl and amide groups above the monolayer of bound water.

Free water is considered as capillary or solution water held only by capillary forces to the seed tissues.

Moisture Equilibrium:

Seeds are highly hygroscopic living material and their moisture content depend on temperature and relative humidity of surrounding air. The hygroscopic nature of seeds allows them to maintain equilibrium moisture content with any given relative humidity at constant temperature. Equilibrium is attained when the seed has no further tendency to absorb or loss moisture. Hygroscopic equilibrium curves also called absorption isotherms are graphical expressions of the relationship between the moisture content of seeds and their ambient relative humidity. It is a sigmoid like curve, with three distinct phases representing different stages of water absorption or adsorption. Phase one represents very tightly held water that may actually be a part of the chemical structure of the seed. This kind of water cannot be removed without destruction of the seed tissues. This phase may also include some water held as discrete molecules in bonding interactions with the seed tissue molecules. Phase two represents water that is more loosely held than that of phase one. For most seeds, this portion of the moisture equilibrium is represented by a straight –line relationship between relative humidity and moisture content. Water represented by the upper portion of the phase two is easily removed by drying; however, the lower portion representing strong bonding is difficult to remove. Water in phase three represents water loosely held by very weak bonding and free water in the intercellular and intertissue space. It is easily eliminated during drying; but if not eliminated, contributes rapid seed deterioration. This curve can be used to predict seed moisture content at a given relative humidity.

The Hyteresis Phenomenon:

The desorption equilibrium curve will usually be slightly higher than the adsorption curve. The difference in the equilibrium moisture content during adsorption and desorption is known as hysteresis .The higher desorption isotherm has attributed to the appearance of additional point of attachment (polar sites) for bound water. On desorption, the disappearance of these polar sites was delayed by their tendency to hold and keep the bound water. On the other hand the lower adsorption isotherm has attributed to the absence of sufficient point of attachment (polar sites) for bound water.

Besides from the influences of temperature and relative humidity of surrounding air on seed moisture content, the adsorption or desorption of water by the seed depends on the chemical composition. The hydrophilic nature of starch, protein and lipid is not same. Protein adsorbs more water than both starch and lipid while starch precedes the lipid. So, the the moisture equivalent of seeds of different cultivars is different at same relative humidity (RH) and temperature.

Crop

Species

% Relative Humidity

30

45

60

75

90

100

Seed moisture content (%)

Rice(milled)

6.8

10.7

12.6

14.4

18.1

23.6

Wheat(white)

8.5

10.1

11.8

14.8

19.7

25.8

Soybean

6.5

7.4

9.3

13.1

18.8

---

Peanut

4.2

5.6

7.2

9.8

13.0

---

Mustard

4.6

6.3

7.8

9.4

---

---

Thum Rule for seed moisture:

Between 5-14% seed moisture, each 1% reduction in seed moisture doubles the life of seed.

Temperature:

Temperature indirectly influences the relative humidity and consequently affects the seed moisture content. For every 20o F increase in temperature, the seed moisture content reduces by 1%.Again with the increase of temperature the rate of metabolic activities of seed increases and consequently the seed deteriorate rapidly.

Thum Rule for Temperature:

Between 0-5o C temperatures, each 5o C reduction in temperature doubles the life of seed.

Because of the interdependency of temperature and relative humidity Harrington(1973) proposed that the sum of the percentage of relative humidity plus the temperature in degrees Farenheit should not exceed 100 for safe storage.

B) Mechanical damage:

Seeds that have broken, cracked, or even bruised deteriorate more rapidly than undamaged seeds. The immediate effect of mechanical damage on seed quality is generally not serious; the delayed effects of such damage on seed longevity are much more troublesome and much greater of economic significance. Direct injuries on the embryonic tissues are much more detrimental to seed longevity than are large injuries to the nonembryonic tissues.

C) Presence of pests:

There are five types of pest found to attract seed in storage.

Bacteria-grows only above 90%RH of air

Fungi-growth is reduced below 75%RH of air and stopped below 62%RH

Mites- growth is stopped below 60%RH.

Insect-can infest at above 10% seed moisture and survive 8-80o C temperature.

Rodents-can cause damage at wide range of temperature and RH

D) Genetical fector:

Genetically some seeds possess higher storability than others.

E) Seed Maturity:

The greatest storage potential is attained at the time of physiological maturity. Immature seeds have been shown to be inferior to mature seeds in viability and vigor.

F) Seed structure and composition:

Seed structure and composition influence the storability of seed as they affect water adsorption or desorption.

G) Hardness of seed coat:

Seeds having hard seed coat possess higher storability than that of normal ones.

H) Seed Dormancy:

Seeds having higher dormancy possess higher storability than that of normal ones.

I) Seed Vigor:

Seeds having higher vigor possess higher storability than that of low vigor ones.

Major Function OF SCA:

- Advice seed producers on production, processing and quality control of seeds;

- Carryout post-market quality control through inspection, testing;

- Collect data/information on seed production processing and quality controls for use by the National Seed Board;

- Certify all Breeder and Foundation seed of controlled crops;

- Certify seeds for seed enterprises as a service;

- Coordinate the variety evaluation and release mechanism for notified crops;

- Advise National Seed Board on the de-notification of varieties for reasons of poor performance or disease and post susceptibility ;

- Help Department of Agriculture Extension in the promotion and use of improved seed of High Yielding Varieties among farmers;

- Collect samples for truthfully labeled seeds throughout the country and cheek their declared standards through 3 appropriate tests;

SEED TESTING

Seed testing refers to an evaluation of seed quality parameters in order to ensure that the seed conforms the seed standards.

The science of seed testing i.e. the science of evaluating the planting value of seed has been developed to achieve the following objectives for minimizing the risk of planting low quality seeds:

To determine their quality i.e. their suitability for planting.

To identify seed quality problems and their probable causes.

To determine the need for drying and processing and specific procedures that used.

To determine if seed meets established quality standards or labeling specification.

To establish quality and provide a basis for price and consumer discrimination among lots n the market.

The main objective of seed testing is to assess the actual planting value of the seed in terms of its germination capacity besides determination of percentage composition of the pure seeds, weed seeds, other crop species, extraneous matter and moisture content of the submitted sample.

Plant quarantine

Enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease.

Plant quarantine is the effort to prevent entry, establishment or spread of a foreign pest in the country through legal restriction on the movement of plants and plant products.

Importance:

To maintain and make high quality planting material to the growers.

To reduce the risk of introduction hazardous pest and pathogens

The national seed board,established in the year 1974, is the statutary body comprising the concern officials and representatives from the private sectors.


Crop management

Agronomic management should be optimal and is similar to that for a grain crop. Small differences do, however, exist:

• using lower seed rates to increase the multiplication factor;

• leaving lanes to facilitate roguing and inspection;

• applying slightly less than optimum amount of N to reduce lodging;

• maintaining the species and variety purity;

• controlling diseases that are seed transmitted.

MOA


NSB FUNCTION:

- advise the Government on all matter regarding the promotion and development of Seed Industry;

- advise the Government to notify under sections 5 of the ordinance any kind or variety of seeds for the purposes of the said ordinance;

- advise to the Government to withdraw or de-notify outdated varieties of seeds;

- advise to the Government on the procedure or standards for certification, test or analysis of seeds;

- advise to the Government on the role and responsibilities of the Certification Agency;

- advise to the Government on a seed security system;

- made arrangements for the registration of varieties of crops grown in Bangladesh, whether developed locally or imported;

- make arrangement for the registration of Seed Dealers in Bangladesh;

- meet any time in a year, not less than twice, to dispose of matters brought before the Board for decision;

- advise to the Government to change any form attached to these rules for better functioning of the seed activities;

- recommend the rate of fees to be levied for analysis of samples by seed laboratory and for certification by the Certification Agency;

- discharge any other work or function, subject to the prior approval of the Government, for carrying out the purposes of the Ordinance.