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পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ

IDENTIFICATION OF FIELD CROPS

IDENTIFICATION OF FIELD CROPS

Identification of crop:

A plant that is grown with proper care and management for its economic value, is termed as crop.

It is very difficult to give a precise definition of crop but it has some characteristics-

i. Crop must be cultivated species.

ii. It must have economic value.

Crop is an aggregation of individual plants, grown on a particular location usually of the same species or variety and has same economic value.

Agronomic crops or field crop:

The crop, which are grown together with less care, usually in large areas and harvested in bulk, is termed as agronomic crops.

Horticultural crops:

Crops that is grown with intensive care.

Definition of identification:

Identification is the art or technique by which one can differentiate various objects or organism (plants, animals) from each other considering their typical characteristics (morphology) and functions.

Identification of Crop:

Identification of crop is an art through which unwanted plants can be separated out from the cropped area. Crops of different species are also separated out on basis of their morphological features.


Importance of identification of crops:

Unwanted plants in crop field often results in severe competition for space, light, nutrients etc. and the quality of the produce is impaired. So, crops and non-crop species should be identified for successful crop production and better yield.

Classification of crops:

Classification is an acceptable product of scientific studies and is obviously based on well-defined characteristics or concepts that separate one group from another.

On the basis of use of crop plants and their products, crop can be classified as follows-

Cereal crops:

Cereals are the cultivated grasses grown for their edible starchy grains under graminae family.

Examples:

Common Name

English Name

Scientific

Name

Family

1. Dhan

Rice

Oryze

sative

Graminae /Poaceae

2. Gam

Wheat

Triticum

aestivum

,,

3. Bhuta

Maize/corn

Zea

mays

,,

4. Jab

Barley

Hordeum

vulgare

,,

5. Jowar

Sorghum

Sorghum

vulgare

,,

6. Cheena

Common Millet

Panicum

miliaceum

,,

7. Bajra

Pearl Millet

Pennisetum

typhoides

,,

8. Kaon

Italian

Setaria

italica

,,

Millets: Millets are the small-grained cereals and have a single cover (due to fusion of testa to the pericorp) Such as – Bajra, Cheena, Kaon.

B. Fibre Crops:

Crops that is grown for the production of fibre.

1. Deshipat

Jute (deshi)

Corchorus

capsularis

Tillaceae

2. Toshapat

Jute (Tosha)

Corchorus

olitorius

,,

3. Mesta pat

Mesta/Rozelle

Hibiscus

sabdariffa

Malvaceae

4. Shan pat

Sunhemp

Crotalaria

juncea

Leguminosea

5. Kenaf

Kenaf

Hibiscus

cannabinus

Malvacea

6. Tola

Cotton

Gossypium

Gossypium

Gossypium

Gossypium

Gossypium

Spp

herbaceum

arboreum

hirsutum

barbadense

Malvacee

C. Oil seed crop:

Crop that produce seeds of high fatty acids contents, used to extract vegetable oil is termed as oil seed crop.

Common Name

English name

S. N

Family

1. Sarisha

Mustard

Brassica

Brassica

Brassica

Brassica

SPP

nigra (Black)

campestris(Born)

juncea (Indian)

Crucifer

2. Cheenabadam

Groundnut

Arachis

hypogea

Leguminosea

3. Till

Sesame

Sesamum

indicum

Pedaliaceae

4. Tishi

Linseed

Linum

usitatissimum

Linaceae

5. Soybean

Soybean

Glycine

max

Leguminosea

6. Surgamukhi

Sunflower

Helianthus

annuus

Compositae

7. Garjan til

Niger

Guizortia

abyssinica

,,

8. Castor veneda

Castor

Ricinus

communis

Euphorbiacea

9. Kusumphul

Safflower

Carthomus

tinctorius

Compositae

* Oil Palm

Elaeis

guineesis

Palmae

D. Pulses:

Seeds of leguminous crop plants used as food especially for the supplementation of protein.

Common Name

English Name

Scientific Name

Family

1. Musor

lentil

lens

culinaris

Compositae

2. Motor

pea

Pisum

sativum

Leguminosae

3. Mug

Munghean

Vigna

radiata

,,

4. Maskolai

Backgram

Vigna

mungo

,,

5. Chola

Gram

Cicer

arietinum

,,

6. Arhar

Pigeon pea

Cajanas

cajan

,,

7. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigna

unguiculata

8. Khessari

Grass pea

Lathyrus

sativus

,,

E. Sugar yielding crops:

The crops, which are grown for the production of sugar, are sugar-yielding crops.

1. Akh

Sugarcane

Saccharum

officinarum

Graminae

2. Sugar beet

Sugarbeet

Beta

vulgaris

Chenopodiaceae

F. Narcotic Crop:

Crop plants or other products that are used for stimulating, numbing, drowsing or relishing effects are known as Narcotic crops.

1. Tamak

Totacco

Nicotiana

tabacum

Solanaceae

2. Gaja

Indian hepm

Cannabis

sativa

Urticaceae

3.Opium

Opium

Papaver

somniferum

Pepaveraceae

G. Beverage crops:

The crops whose products are used as mild, agreeable and stimulating liquors meant for drinking.

Cha

Tea

Camellia

sinensis

Theaceae

Coffee

Coffee

Coffea

arabica

Rubiaceae

Cacao

Cacao

Theobroma

cacao

Sterculiaceae

H.Fodder Crops:

The crops whose products (vegetative matter either fresh or preserved) used as feed for animal is called fodder crop.

1. Maize

Maize

Zea

mays

Graminae

2. Sorghum

Sorghum

Sorghum

vulgare

3. Bazre

Bazra

Pennisetum

typhoides

,,

4. Job

Barley

Hordeum

vulgare

,,

5. Napier grass

Napier grass

Pennisetum

purpureum

,,

6. Guinea grass

Guinea grass

Purureum

maximum

,,

7. Para grass

Brachiaria

mutica

,,

8. Alfalfa

Medicago

sativa

Leguminosea

9. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigua

unguiculata

Leguminosea

10. Grasspea

Lathyrus

sativus

,,

11. Maskolai

Blackgram

Vigna

mungo

,,

I. Green manuring crop:

The crop plants that are used for incorporation into the soil, as green state to add organic matter for improving the physical properties and fertility status of soil.

1. Dhaincha

Dhaincha

Sesbania

aculeata

Leguminosea

2. Sonpat

Sunhemp

Crotalaria

juncea

,,

3. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigna

unguiculata

,,

4. Motor

Pea

Pisum

sativum

,,

5. Maskolai

Black gram

Vigna

mungo

,,