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IDENTIFICATION OF FIELD CROPS

IDENTIFICATION OF FIELD CROPS

DEFINITION OF CROP :

A plant that is grown with proper care and management for its economic value, is termed as crop.

It is very difficult to give a precise definition of crop but it has some characteristics-

i. Crop must be cultivated species.

ii. It must have economic value.

Crop is an agreement of individual plants grown on a particular location usually of the same species or variety and have same economic value.

Agronomic crops or field crop :

The crop which are grown together with less care, usually in large areas and harvested in bulk, is termed as agronomic crops.

Horticultural crops:

Crops that are grown with tensive care.

Definition of identification :

Identification is the architecture by which one can differentiate various objects or organism (plants, animals) from each other considering their typical characteristics and functions morphology.

Identification of Crop :

Identification of crop is an art through which unwanted plants can be separated out from the cropped area. Crops of different species are also separated out on basis of their morphological features.


Importance of identification of crops :

Unwanted plants in crop field often results in severe competition for space, light, nutrients etc. and the quality of the produce is impaired. So, crops and non crop species should be identified for successful crop production and better yield.

Classification of crops:

Classification is an acceptable product of scientific studies and is obviously based on well defined characteristics or concepts that separate one group from another.

On the basis of use of crop plants and their products, crop can be classified as follows-

Cereal crops :

Cereals are the cultivated grasses grown for their edible starchy grains under gramineae family examples :

Cammon Name

E.N.

Scientific Name

Family

1. Dhan

Rice

Oryze

Sative

Gramineae Poaceae

2. Gam

Wheat

Triticum

aestivum

,,

3. Bhuta

Maize/corn

Zea

mays

,,

4. Jab

Barley

Hordeum

Vulgare

,,

5. Jowar

Sorghum

Sorghum

Vulgare

,,

6. Cheena

Little Millet

Pannicum

Millare/Miliaceum

,,

7. Bajra

Pearl Millet

Pennisetum

Typhoideum

,,

8. Oat

Oat

Averra

Sativa

,,

9. Ka

Gitalian

Seteria

italica

,,

Millets: Millets are the small grained cereals and have a single cover (due to fusion of testa to the pericorp) Such as – Bajra, Cheena, Kaon.

B. Fibre Crops :


Crops that are grown for the production of fibre.

1. Deshipat

Jute (deshi)

Corchorus

Capsularis

Tillaceae

2. Toshapat

Jute (Tosha)

S.

Otitorius

,,

3. Mesta pat

Mesta/Rozelle

Hibisucs

Sab darifa

Mal value

4. Shan pat

Sunhemp

Crotalaria

Juncea

Legu mikos

5. Kenaf

Kenaf

Hibiscus

Cannabinus

Mat

6. Tola

Cotton

Gossypium

SPP

Malvacee

C. Oil seed crop :

Crop that produce seeds of high latty acids contents, used to extract vegetable oil is termed as oil seed crop.

Common Name

E.

S. N

Family

1. Sarisha

Mustard

Brassica

B. Nigra (Black)

B. Compestris (Born)

B. Juncea (Indian)

SPP

Crucifer

2. Cheenabadam

Groundnut

Arachis

hypogea

Leguminasea

3. Till

Sesame

Sesamum

Indicum

Pedaliaceae

4. Tishi

Linseed

Linum

Usitatissimum

Linaceae

5. Soybean

Soybean

Ghycine

Max

Leguminse

6. Surgamukhi

Sunflower

Helianthus

Annus

Composite

7. Garjan til

Niger

Guizortia

abyssinice

,,

8. Castor veneda

Castor

Rieinus

Communis

Euphorbiacea

* Oil Palm

Elaeis

Ghineesis

Palmae

9. Kusumphul

Safflower

Carthomus

tinetorius

Corp

D. Pulse

Seeds of leguminous crop plants used as food especially for the supplementation of protein.

Common Name

English Name

Scientific Name

Family

1. Musor

lentil

lens

esculents

culinary

2. Motor

pea

Pisum

Sativum

Leguminosae

3. Mug

Munghean

Vigna

Radiata

,,

4. Maskolai

Backgram

Vigna

Mungo

,,

5. Chola

Gram

Cricer

Arietinum

,,

6. Arhar

Pigeon pea

Cajanas

Cajan

,,

7. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigna

Sinensis

Unguiculate

8. Khessari

Grass pea

Lathyrus

Sativus

,,

E. Sugar yielding crops :

Crops grown for the production of sugar.

1. AKH

Sugarcane

Saccharum

Officinarum

Gramine

2. Sugar beet

Sugarbeet

Beta

Valgaris

Chenopodiaceae

3. Khejur

Date palm

phoenix

sylvestri

Palmae

4. Tal

Palmira

Borassus

Flabellifee

,,

F. Narcotic Crop :

Crop plants or other products that are used for stimulating, numbing, drowsing or relishing effects are known as Narconic crops.

1. Tamak

Totacco

Nicotiana

Tabacum

Solanaceae

2. Gaja

Indian hepm

Cannabis

Sativa

Urticaceae

G. Beverage :

Products are used as mild, agreeable and stimulating liquors meant for drinking.

1. Cha Tea These / Camellia SPP Theaceae

i. S Sinensis Ternstroemiceae

ii. S Viridis

2. Coffee Coffee Coffee Arabica Rubiacea

3. Cacao Cacao Theabroma Cacao Stereuliaceae

H. Fodder Crops: Vegetative matter eitheir freshor crop who products preserved used as feed for animal is called fooder crop

1. Maize

Maize

Zea

Mays

Gramineae

2. Sorghum

Sorghum

Sorghum

Valgare

3. Bazre

Bazra

Pennisetum

typhoideum

,,

4. Job

Barley

Hordeum

Vulgare

,,

5. Napier grass

Pennisetum

Purpureum

,,

6. Guinea

Panicum

Purureum

,,

7. Para grass

Brachiaria

Mutica

,,

8. Alfalfa

Medicago

Sativa

Leguminozea

,,

9. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigua

sinensus

Logunivoze

10. Grasspea

Lathyrus

Sativus

,,

11. Maskolai

Blackgram

Vigua

Mango

,,

I. Green maturing crop :

The crop plants that are used for the incorporation into the soil as green state to add organic matter for improving the physical properties and fertility status of soil.

1. Dhaincha

Dhaincha

Sesbania

Aculeata

Leguminosea

2. Sonpat

Sunhemp

Crotalaria

Junea

,,

3. Cowpea

Cowpea

Vigna

Sinesis

,,

4. Motor

Pea

Pisum

Sativum

,,

5. Maskolai

Black gram

Vigna

Mango

,,