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পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ

Sociology

Sociology

Social group

1. H. curry & M. Johnson, “Social group is a system of social interaction”.

2. Marshal johns is of the opinion that-

“A social group is two or more peoples between whom there is an established pattern of interaction”.

3. R.M MacIver & Page define social group as-

“Any collection of human beings who are brought into human relationships with one another”.

4. Ogburn &Nimkoff says that-

“Whenever two or more individuals come together & influence one another, then will be said to constitute a social group”.

Condition of Social Group

1. Co –operation among the members.

2. There should have common interests & collective objectives.

3. The group members should be aware of group motto & group interest.

4. Intimacy among the members.

Group Characteristics

1. A group must be established as a social unit. The members should be confined to certain type of people.

2. The group should have a certain social structure. Every member should have his own social status. All will not have equal level of status. There should be differentiation among the status of the members.

3. Each member of a group is to have a certain role in respective field. Otherwise the existence of the group must be hampered.

4. Mutual interaction is essential for a social group. The members must have interactions.

5. Group Norms

Every group has its own norms which the members are supposed to be followed. These norms may be in the forms of customs, mores, folkways, tradition. Every group has its own ways & means of correcting those who against the rules.

6. Size of Group

Social group vary in size. A group may be as small as two members like husband & wife or as big as that of political party having lux of members. In modern world there is commonly tendency of increasing the number of group members for its existence.

7. Groups are Dynamic

Social groups are not static but dynamic. Groups are subject to change either slow or rapid. Old members died & new members are born. Whatever due to internal or external pressures or forces group is to change.

8. Stability

Groups may be stable or unstable that is permanent or temporary characteristics. Excited crowed, mob, audience & specters etc are temporary & unstable. Racial & religious groups are permanent in nature.

Importance of Social Group

Human beings are voluntarily within a group for their own interest. So, from the very beginning man live within group. Following are the importance of group life.

1. Existence

For safety from natural calamities from the attack of wild animals & from so many hazard men are to take shelter of group. Men can’t protect natural hazards loanly. So, they protect all these collectively.

2. To Fulfill Basic Needs

No man can fulfill basic needs through individually force. Therefore, he has to depend on group for his needs. Group life is provides with conductive environment & more collectively what have wants & needs.

3. Provide With Security & Safety

Human life can not exist without security & safety. Although man is the best creation of the God, yet he is so much helpless. Without the help of others man can’t conduct his life. We can say from the past experience security during childhood, old age & disable condition group has provide with security & help.

4. Group Helps & Individual in Socialization

Family is the primary group. Socialization in human being began in the family life. The effort of every family is to make a child to a good citizen. A good citizen of future society efforts of & it starts from family life. It gets its complete shape in group life, family, playmate, schoolmate have important role in socialization.

5. Group Contribute To the Development of Personality & Individual

Personality is the product of group life. Group provide with scope for the individuals to express their real nature, their talents & abilities. Hidden potentialities can find their expression only in the context of social group. Emotional developments, intellectual maturity, stratification of physical & social needs are unthinkable without social group.

6. Group Helps In Social Survivor

By engaging him self constant relations with others, men learn different things & mend his ways. His keeps his eyes wide open, Lents his ears to what other says, tries to keep his memory every fresh to the good things of the past & retain from the repeating of blenders of the post. In brief, from birth to death man is engaged in building up his ways of life.

7. Group Life Increases Mutual Co-Operation

The base of social life is mutual co-operation. Human co-operation originated from group life & man learns to exchange co-operation through group life.

8. Extension of Social Culture through Group

Human beings are only the creation of good who build up a culture. Social group provide with ways to build up human culture. Social culture is preserve & inherently transmitted to the next generation through social group.

Classification of Social Group

1. Involuntary & Voluntary Groups

Institutional Groups & Non- Institutional Groups

In voluntary groups include the groups such as family, city, state, community, caste, race & voluntary groups include political parties, trade unions, youth associations, religious associations, cultural associations & so on. Institutional groups are permanent in nature & include church, state, school, caste & so on. While the non institutional groups are temporary in nature & it include crowds, mobs, public audience.

2. In groups & out groups

W.G. Sumner in his ‘folkways’ differentiate between In groups & out groups & In groups will be simple “we group” & out group is “they group”.

For example –For a Hindu all other Hindus constitute his ‘in group’ & members of other religions groups are ‘out group’.

3. Horizontal Group & vertical

P.A Sorokin has advocated two types of groups like horizontal group & vertical group. The farmers are large & inclusive groups such as nations, religious organizations, & political parties. The lattes are smallest division such as economic classes which give the individual status.

4. Territorial Group & Non Territorial Group

Park has distinguished between territorial &. Territorial groups include community & status. Non territorial groups are classes into class & public.

5. Primary Groups & Secondary Groups

On the basis of quality & nature of social interaction groups have been classified into primary groups & secondary groups. C. H Cooley is associated with this classification. The major group is primary group & the racial group is secondary group.

6. Genetic & Congregate Group

F. Giddings has introduced this type of classification. Genetic group is involuntary in nature & individuals are bond in them. Congregate groups are voluntary in nature & individuals are congregate at liberty to join them or not.

Difference between Primary & Secondary group

C.H. Cooley is the founder of this classification. As social groups are well-known group.

1. Primary group is small in size. So, it is termed as very quick group. Intimate character is formed through this group. Family & playmates are primary group. Secondary group is big in size. So, to form group character & group solidarity it takes time.

2. The group solidarity & firmness is very strong in the case of primary group. In secondary group, it is not so strong.

3. Affections, feelings for each other form very strongly in primary group. Comparatively, it is loose in secondary group.

4. Close & heartiest relation between members is available in primary group but it is not clearly seen in secondary group.

5. Relation between two members in primary group is permanent. But, it is not permanent in secondary group. Sometimes it is very temporary in secondary.

6. The relationship of primary group members is also direct. So, the longer is the relation dipper & more permanent it is. Secondary group relation is indirect & temporary.

7. The members are situated or located in closer with direct relations among primary group. The secondarily locations of members are the root cause of indirect relations of secondary group members.

8. The primary group members are directly related & can stand by the side of each other during well woe. The secondary group members can’t do so.

9. The primary group members can be helpful to each other. They can face their problems collectively, but secondary group members can’t do so. Because secondary group are form based on some principals of motto. So, the rights & duties of members have some limitations.

10. Objectives of primary group are traditional, but the objectives of secondary group are based on their motto & performance.

11. Humanities are available among primary group members, but in secondary group those are rarely found.

12. Primary group is a unit of social unit center. Secondary group is the summation of social unit center.

ROLE AND STATUS

As social being man has to play a role. We can see in every working place, every person has to perform a duty. Role means right and duties related to a particular status. Social organization can run properly if every member’s are assigned respective duties and those duties are properly perform by respective person.

Ogburn and Nimkoff:

“A role is a set of society expected and approve behavior pattern consisting of both duties and privileges associated with a particular in a group”.

Characteristics of Social Stratification

According to M.M Tumin, the main features of social stratification are as follows---

1. It Is Social:

Social stratification is social, because it does not represent biologically caused in equation. It is true that, age, sex, can often serve as the basis on which status or strata are distinguished. But such different are not sufficient to explain some status receive some more power, property, prestige & other. For example – the manager of an industry attains a dominant position not by his physical strength not by his age but by having the socially defined trait.

Tumin has also pointed out that stratification system is firstly governed by social norms. Secondly it is likely to be unstable because it may be disturbed by different factors like- family, political, religious, economics, educational & other institutional factors.

2. It Is Ancient:

Stratification system is quite old. According to historical & archaeological records, stratification was present in even primitive society. Difference between the rich & poor, power & humble, freeman & slave was there in almost all ancient societies.

3. It Is Universal:

This system is a world wide phenomenon. Difference between the rich & poor or the have or have not. It is evident every where. Even in the non-literate society stratification is very much present. This is why Sorokin has said, all permanently groups are stratified.

4. It Is Divers In Forms, Stratification System

Stratification system is differed in the form & categories. The ancient Aryan society was stratified into four classes which are as follows—

-Brahmins -kshtriya -Vishay’s -Shudras

The ancient Greek society into free man & salves. The ancient chine’s society into the—

-Mandarins -Merchants -Peasants -Solders

Class caste & estate seem to be the general forms of stratification to be found in modern world. But, in fact stratification is so complex a phenomenon in the civilized society.

5. It Is Consequential

The system has its own consequences by nature & fortunately the scarcest things in human life are distributed equally. The stratification system leads to two principal’s kinds of consequences - a) Life Changes b) Life Style

Life changes refer to such things as in fact mortality, longevity, mental illness, marital conflict, separation & divers.

Life style includes such matter as the mode of housing, residential area, individual education, means of recreation, relationship between parents & children.

Origin of Social Satisfaction

There are two main theories concerning the origin of social satisfaction.

i. Theory of economic determination of Karlmarx which is known as conflict theory and other is the,

ii. Functionalist Theory.

According to Marx,

Economic factors are responsible for the emergence of different social strata or classes. Therefore, Social classes are defined by the relation with the factors of production (i.e. by this ownership or no ownership).

There are in every society two mutually conflicting classes,

Ø The classes of capitalist

Ø The classes of workers or the reach and the poor

These two classes have mutually opposite interest.

Conflict between the two classes is inevitable. Oppenheimer and others have argued that, the origin of social satisfaction is found in the conquest of one group by other. The conquering group normally dominates the conquered group. The conquered group is forced to accept the lower status and lower class life.

Functionalist Theory

It refers that, system is universal. According to him, satisfaction has got its existence due to the functional necessity. The main functional necessity is, “The requirement of placing right man in right position.” Social stratification is an unconsciously evolved device by which society ensure that most important post are filled up by most qualified person.

The conflict theory of Karl Marx emphasizes conflict between large and stable groups where there is strong community sentiments while the functionalist theory emphases the integrating functions of social stratification based upon individuals merits and reward of merit.

Social Mobility

Men are normally engaged in endless struggle to enhance their position through moving from one position to another. For varies regions people of higher position may also be forced to come down to a lower position. This people in the society continue to move up and down the status scale. The movement is called social mobility.

The social mobility may be termed as the movements of people from groups from one social status or position to another.

For example, the poor people become rich. The bank peon may become bank officer.

Kind of Social Mobility

1. Vertical Social Mobility

It refers to the movement of people of growth from one status to another. In involves change in class, occupation or power. For example - movements of people from poor class or lower class to middle class.

2. Horizontal Social Mobility

It refers to change in position without the change in status. It indicates the change in position within the range of status. . For example – an engineer working in a factory may region his post & joins another factory in the same rank of post.

Function of social stratification

According to Wilbert Moore, stratification system came to be evolved in all the societies due to functional necessity.

1. Stratification encourages hard work

It is known that occupations are rank high if their functions are highly important & the required personnel are very scarce. Hard work, prolong training & heavy burden of responsibilities are associated with such occupational position. People under taking such works are rewarded with money, prestige, comforts etc. Still we cannot said that all those positions which are regarded as important are adequately compensate for

2. It ensures circulation of elites

When a higher degree of prestige, comforts & other rewards are offered for certain position, there will be certain competition for those. This process of competition helps to ensure that the more efficient people able to rise to the top, where their abilities can be best used.

3. It serves as economic function

Competition helps to ensure the rational use of available talents. Even in the cast system, the people at the top position can loss their prestige if they failed maintain certain standard. Hence, differential rewards provide this incentives or upper classes to work at maintaining their position.

4. Stratification prevents waste of resources

The elite persons possess scarce & socially valued abilities & qualities. For this they may enjoy extra comfort for performing mental work. For example- It would be waste to use the resource of society for creating doctors & engineers & use them to work as pe & attain tends.

5. Stabilities & reinforces the attitude & skills

More intimate relationships are mostly found between class members. Those, who have similar values & interest, tend to associates comfortably with one another. Their frequent association itself conform their common values & interest.

6. Helps to pursue different profession or jobs

Values, attitudes & qualities of different classes are different & it is functional. Because of the early influence of family & socialization highly educated people are not interest for manual jobs. Values, attitudes & qualities are relevant to their social class.

7. Social control

To some extend, lower class cultural characteristics are essential & functional for society. Both upper class group & lower class group mutually is functional from the point of social control.

8. Controlling effect on the shady world

Stratification has another social controlling function. Lower class criminals, black marketers, smugglers try to get responsibility. They know that earning the money is not way of getting prestige. For sake of their children & their own carrier such people want to repent upon their past deeds & rectified their life.

Caste system

Caste is so complex a phenomenon which is difficult to define.

1. C.H.Cooley:

When class is some what strictly hereditary we may call it a caste.

2. A.W.Green:

Caste is a system of stratification in which mobility up & down the status ladder, at least ideally may not occur.

3. MacIver & Page:

When status is wholly predetermined so that men are borned to their lot without any hope of changing it, then the class takes the extreme form of caste.

4. D.N. Majumder & T.N. Madan: Caste is a closed group.

Characteristics of caste:

The system is highly complex in nature. The following are the main features-

1. It is hierarchical division of society

Here, society is divided into several small groups called castes & sub-castes. A sense of highness & lowness or superiority & inferiority is associated with this gradation. The Brahmins are placed at the top & regarded as a pure. The degraded caste or the so called untouchables (Harijans) are regarded as out caste.

2. Caste as a segmental division of society

The Hindu society is a caste ridden society. It is not homogenous society. The status of an individual is determined by his birth & not by selection or not by performance. The membership of caste is hence unchangeable & un-acquirable. Each caste has its own customs, tradition & practices. There are caste councils to regulate the conduct of members.

The cast and sub-cast together made up the Hindu social system. Still now each cast is isolated from another. The members are expected to be loyal to the cast system. Cast felling is very much strong. It is stronger in rural areas incomparism with urban areas.

3. Restrictions on food & habit

There are some restrictions regarding food & habit which differ from caste to caste. Who would accept, what kind of food & from where? – is decided by caste. For example- in north -India, a Brahmin would accept ‘pakka food’ (cooked in ghee) only from some caste lower than his own. But he would accept ‘kaccha food’ (prepared with the use of water) and the hands of no other caste except his own. Generally any kind of food that is prepared by Brahmins is accepted to all caste people. Even today, some traditional Brahmins do not consume onion, garlic, cabbage, carrot etc. Eating beef is not allowed accept for horijons.

4. Restriction on social relation

Idea of pollution is usually related with this concept. A touch of lower caste people (particularly horijons) would pollute a man of higher caste. Even there shade is considered enough to pollute a higher caste people. This has resulted in the practice has made the lower caste people to be segregated completely from the higher caste people.

5. Social and religious disabilities of certain caste

In this system, some lower caste people suffer from certain civil or social & religious disabilities. Generally, impure castes are to live on the outskirts of the city or village. Even today in many places they are not allowed to draw water from public wells. Entrance to temples & other religious places were restricted for lower caste people. Educational & legal rights & political representation were denied for a long time. Construction of housing pattern, types of dresses were also restricted. They were also forbidden to cover the upper part of their body.

6. Civil & religious privileges of certain caste

If the lower caste people suffer from certain disabilities, some higher caste people like Brahmins enjoy certain privileges. The Brahmins are believed to be borned pure & superior. Brahmins never saluted others but they were all along saluted by others. Education & teaching were almost the monopoly of the higher caste people.

7. Restriction on occupational choice

In this system, some occupations are considered to be superior where as some others are degrading & inferior. For long time, occupations are very much related with respective caste system. The caste members were expected to continue the same occupation & these occupations were ascribed through heredity. Weaving, shoe making, oil-grinding, sweeping, washing cloth, barbering, pottery etc. were considered to be some what degrading. Learning, Priest hood, teaching were prestigious profession which were ascribed Brahmins by born. Individual talents, abilities, achievements were neglected. Agriculture, trade & laboring in the field thrown open to all caste.

8. Restrictions on marriage

Caste is an endogamous group. According to it, an individual has to marry within his/her own group. Each caste is subdivided into several sub-castes which are gained endogamous. Inter-caste marriage is strictly prohibited.

Merits of Caste:

1. Caste represented a division of society based on division of occupation. 2. Caste promotes the spirits of co-operation & it is ay least within its range. It helps the poor, the needy & strengthens group sentiment.

3. Caste is source of social stability.

4. The caste functions as the constitution of Hindu society.

5. The caste preserve the racial purity by prohibiting inter marriage.

6. It provides with cultural diffusion within the group.

Demerits of Caste:

1. The caste has given scope to the in human practice of untouchability. It has across the social solidarity.

2. Gandiji has said, “untouchability is the hate fullest expression of caste”.

3. It has hindered the growth of strong national unity. The sprit of caste patriotism endangers the growth of national consciousness.

4. Excessive caste loyalty has broad about political disunity.

5. It has prevented the proper growth of democracy & caste can not go together.

6. It has retarded national progress. Caste is more conservative.

7. It has hindered social mobility. It has made our society more static than dynamic.

8. It has lowered the status of women. It has discouraged women’s property ownership.

9. Lower caste people are being converted to other religions due to the tyranny of upper caste.

Estate system

It represents a style of social stratification that existed in Europe during middle age. The system emerged in the Roman Empire & existed in Europe until very recent time. In Sweden almost up to 1866, there were four estate divisions- nobles, clergy, citizens & peasants.

Social class

The word “class” is used to refer the quality of things whether good, better, best & so on. But the concept of social class is used in sociology representing a kind of social stratification then anything else.

1. Ogburn & Nimkoff

A social class is the aggregate of persons having essential the same social status in a given society.

2. MacIver & Page

A social class is any portion of the community ranked off from the rest by social status.

3. Weber

Social classes are aggregates of individuals who have the same opportunities of acquiring goods, some exhibited standard of living.

4. As MacIver says-

Whenever social enter course limited by the consideration of social status by distinction between higher & lower their exist a social class.

Features of social class

1. Active status

In social class, status is achieved but not ascribed. It is not a criteria of status achievement of an individual mostly decides his status. Class system provides with scope for changing or improving once status. Factors such as- income, occupation, wealth, education etc decides the status of an individual.

2. Class system is universal

Class system is almost a universal phenomenon. It appears in almost al the modern complex societies except in a few smallest, simplest & most primitive societies.

3. Mode of feeling

In this system, we may observe three modes of feeling-

a. There is a feeling of equality in relation to the members of one’s own class. b. There is a feeling of inferiority in relation to those who occupied higher status in society. c. There is a feeling of superiority in relation to those who occupied the lower status in the society.

4. Element of prestige

Each social class has its own status in the society. Status is associated with prestige. Status & prestige are enjoyed by the rich classes in every society. Superiors are above the commoners or the poor.

5. Elements of stability

The social class is relatively stable to group. It is not transitory or unstable like crowd or mob. Though, status in case of class which subject to change. It is too some stable. Status in case of class may undergo radical change in extra ordinary circumstances. That is in the time of war, revolution, economic political & social crisis & so on.

6. Mode of living

A class is distinguished from other classes by its life style which refers to modes of living including one’s dress, the kind of house & neighborhood one lives in, it means of recreation, the cultural products one & able to enjoy. The relation between parents & children kinds of books, magazines & TV shows to which one is exposed one’s friend. One’s mode of communication, one’s way of expending money.

7. Social class an open group

Social class represents an open social system. An open class system is one in which vertical social mobility is possible. In other words, there are no restrictions or at best only very mild restrictions are imposed on the upward & downward movements of individuals in the social hierarchy.

Rural Sociology

1. Sanderson says that, “rural sociology is the sociology of rural life in the rural environment”.

2. Bertrand says that, “rural sociology is the study of human relationship in rural environment”.

3. A. R Desai says that, “rural sociology is the science of rural society. It is the science of laws of the development of rural society”.

In short, rural sociology studies the social interactions, institutions & activities & social changes that take place in the rural society.

Subject Matter of Rural Sociology

Scope or subject matter of rural sociology is the basically the study of rural society of its complexes. Main tasks of rural sociology is here—

1. Rural Community & Rural Problem

This includes the characteristics & nature of rural community & its problems.

2. Rural Social Life

This includes the social aspects of rural people.

3. Rural Social Organization

This includes the study of various rural social organization including family & marriage.

4. Rural Social Institutions & Structure

This includes the study of customs, traditions, value morals, and conventions, political & economic institutions.

5. Rural Planning & Reconstruction

Rural planning and reconstruction are also the main tasks to be deal with.

6. Social Change & Social Control In Rural Social Set up

Here, we study the impact of city on rural life. The mechanisms of social control of rural society are also examined here.

Background of Rural Sociology

The rural society was first introduced in U.S.A. It has taken more than half a century to be established as a professional study. The contributors to the development of rural sociology are as follows—

Ø Charles Sanderson

Ø Burther Field

Ø Ernest Burnhome

Ø John Morrisgillin

Ø Franklin H. Gidding and

Ø Thomas Nixon Carver

These are the contributors to the development of sociology. President Roosevelt was also a contributor to the development of sociology. He appointed a country life commission in 1908. It gave a good encouragement to the development of rural sociology.

In 1917 the development of rural sociology

Socioeconomic Problem

Beggary is a great socio-economic problem found in many of the underdeveloped countries of the world. It is a symptom of personal as well as social disorganization. A man begging in the street at once reminds us of an ill-organized society.

Who is a begger?

All those who beg are not beggers. To be identified as a begger he has to satisfy some conditions, such conditions are as follows-

1. A begger is one who lives by soliciting alms in every public place like temples, mosques, hotels, bus stops, market place etc.

2. One who wanders from door to door or place to place for begging alms in order to support himself, his family or dependents and

3. One who is without any visible means of subsistence.

Definition and Types of Beggers

It is difficult to define it satisfactory. Still it can be said that “A begger is one who asks for alms or charity or performs such actions which derive sympathy from others and who give something in return.”

According to Hyderabad prevention act “Beggary means begging on roads or on door to door standing or entering a house or a place of business or otherwise for the maintenance of himself and his dependants.

Types of Baggers:

There are eight types of beggers.

1. Able-bodied Adult beggers

Some adult men and women are begger either because thus are unemployed or under employed and have no other .Source of money to support themselves .Some lazy people who are not prepared to work hard are also this type of begger.

2. Able bodied child begger:

This type of beggers include – a. those child beggers whose parents are in capable of earning by any means, b. those who are forced to beg due family disorganization, c. those who are kidnapped by some people & made to earn a living of begging & d. those coming from some orphanages.

3. Hereditary beggers

This type of beggers considers begging as their hereditary profession. Such tribal communities consider begging as their hereditary profession. They beg without any hesitation.

4. Sick or disables beggers

These people are suffering from chronic 7 incurable diseases such as venereal diseases, T.B., skin diseases. They are very often spread diseases to others.

5. Mentally retarded

Some beggers are found to be mentally abnormal.

6. Old & incapable people

Old & incapable people also often beg due to incapacity to work & earn a living.

7. Religious mendicants

Fagus, Darvesh, Nanakshahi & others do beg with religious mendicants. These may be subdivided into three-

a. Sadhus & Faqirs who are in charge of small or big temples or mosque & continue their begging to their members alone.

b. Sadhus & Faqirs who wonder about from place to place for the purpose of begging.

C. Bogus Religious Mendicants who beg under the gurb the sadhu or sanyasi or faqir. For them begging is only an easy profession for maintenance of themselves.

8. Physically disabled

These include the blind, deaf, dump & crippled.

Causes of begging

There are more than single caused in behind the beggary. It is the result of so many factors. These causes may be analyzed under four head economic, social, biological & religious.

1. Economic causes

Economic causes may be analyzed under three subdivisions:

a. Poverty

Poverty is the main cause of beggary. Still now, major numbers of people are living below standard of life. A large numbers of people are poor. They find it difficult to fulfill their basic needs of food, clothing & shelter. The non-availability of employment has added to their poverty. They find way of beggary to remove the problem.

b. Lack of employment and/or underemployment

Unemployment is another cause of beggary. The present system of economy has not been able to provide with adequate job. Agriculture employment is also limited as well as the productivity of agriculture is not satisfactory. Hence, a number of landless people have started moving towards town & cities in search of employments. Of these a sizeable number of people are begging without getting any job.

c. Beggary as a profitable business

Many of the beggers have made beggary as a easy professional & sufficient income, they get out of it. On an average, a begger earns TK 200-300 a day. Even an able bodied agril labor earns approximate 100TK/day. Thus, some have found begging as an easy and profitable business of getting their daily breed.

2. Social causes

Among the social causes the following could be mentioned as, family disorganization, lack of parental control, community disorganization, breakdown joint family system and social customs:

a. Family disorganization:

Family is a nucleus of social structure. It influences most of the activities and behavior, patterns of the members. Family disturbances are found to affect their activities of its members. In the causes of the poor, death of parents, death of husband, and death of breadwinner may often lead to family disorganization. As a result, the helpless family members are compelled to beg for their survival.

b. Lack of parental control

Due to very hard living conditions in cities and industrialized centre’s, the poor parents can’t find time to make their children to be socialized properly. Hence the children are left without proper earn such children’s often fall as victims into some companies which employ them for begging.

c. Community disorganization

Community disorganization and break up of joint family previously there were temple, rural panchayat, and such other institutional controls over rural societies to give sufficient security and protection to the poor; needy and disabled people. These institutions now become either weaken or ineffective or disorganized. The result is the helpless people are driven to the profession of begging.

d. Favorable Social customs

It is proved that the tribal group begs as customary obligation. The tribal’s such as Nat Domas and a few others consider begging as their hereditary occupation. The traditional in the society give alms to the beggars as a matter of their commitment to the customs.

Remedial Measures

The problem of beggary has to be tackled in some way or the other. Some of preventive and welfare measures already taken and those that is to be taken to deal effectively with the problem of beggary.

1. Legislation to prevent beggary:

A legislation is essential to prohibit beggars in any form. Begging has been declared an offence in many of the advanced countries long back. But there is no general law against begging in underdeveloped countries. In India legislation against begging in railway premises and trains is still present according to railway Act passed in 1941.

2. Establishment of protective Homes or Rehabilitation centres

The problem must be tackled rationally as well as humanistic ally. It is necessary to set up protective homes for the beggars. There should be provision of compulsory keeping in detention home or beggars home and must be given them proper treatment, training of skills like weaving, spinning, dyeing, toy making, tailoring etc. Such training will helps them to earn their livelihood by their own efforts.

3. Provision of work house

Special attain must be paid to able bodied adult beggars who could be given some training in different types of industries steps should be taken to secure jobs for them to rehabilitate them permanently

4. Separate houses

The provision of separate houses for man and woman should be ensured. There should have separate houses for disabled persons. Each group should be provided with respective suitable job. The woman beggars should be trained in the skills of Knitting embroidery tailoring, toy making, mat and basket making.

5. Reception centre’s should be set up in every important place where beggars should be kept in first instant. The centre’s should be well equipped to give appropriate treatment to the beggars depending on the native of each type of beggars.

6. Comprehensive social security measures are also necessary to prevent the unemployed youths, the aged infirm people, widow, deserted wives, disowned children, unmarried mothers from begging.

7. Counteracting the influence of poverty.

This requires the development of country’s resources. This also demands proper economic planning and its effective implementation. Various developments schemes are to be taken in order to accommodate the poor so that they are not tempted to take to begging.

8. Mobilizing public opinion

Public opinions are to mobilize against indiscriminate alms giving through government or private institutions. The traditional attitude and outlook of people regarding beggary should be changed.

9. Schemed to collect Donation

On an average a beggar gets Tk50 as alms from the public. Thus huge amount of money is paid to the beggars. It such a vast amount of money is collected and spent for the rehabilitation of beggars through some centralized initiatives the problem could be reduced a great deal within a short time.