BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AGRONOMY
Principle means a scientific law that explains natural action and agronomic principles are the ways and means for the better management of soil, plants and environment for economically maximum returns per unit area.
Principles of crop management depends largely on the type of farming namely, specialized, diversified, mixed and integrated and also on the physical and technological facilities available, irrigated farming, dry farming and rain fed farming.
The fundamental principles of agronomy may be listed as:
i. Planning, programming and executing measures for maximum utilization of land, labor, capital, sunshine, rain-water, temperature, humidity, transport and marketing facilities;
ii. Choice of crop verities adaptable to the particular agro-climate, land situation, soil fertility, season and method of cultivation and befitting (suitable) to the cropping systems;
iii. Proper field management by tillage, preparing field channels and bunds for irrigation and drainage, checking soil erosion, leveling and adopting other suitable land improvement practices;
iv. Adoption of multiple cropping and also mixed or inter cropping to ensure harvest even under adverse environmental conditions ;
v. Timely application of proper and balanced nutrients to the crop or crops in sequence and improvement of soil fertility and productivity. Correction of bad effect of soil reactions and conditions and increasing soil organic matter through the application of green manner. FYM, organic wastes, bio-fertilizer and profitable recycling of organic wastes;
vi. Choice of quality seed or seed material and maintenance of requisite plant density per unit area with healthy and uniform seedlings.
vii. Proper water management with respect to crop, soil and environment through conservation and utilization of soil moisture as well as by water that is available in excess.
viii. Adoption of adequate, need-based, timely and proper plant protection measures against weed’s insect-pests, pathogens, as well as climatic hazards and correction of deficiencies and disorders;
ix. Adoption of suitable and proper management practices including intercultural operations to get maximum benefit.
x. Adoption of suitable method and time of harvesting of crop to reduce field-damage and to release land for succeeding crop(s) and efficient utilization of residual moisture, plant nutrients and other management practices.
xi. Adoption of suitable post harvest technologies.