DEFFERENCE BETWEEN INSECT AND MITE:
(1)Insect’s has three pairs of legs
(1) Mites has 4 pairs of legs.
(2)Body divided into three regions:
(2) Body divided into two regions:
Head, Thorax, and Abdomen.
Cephalothorax and abdomen.
(4)Insect under the class insecta.
(4)Mite under the class arachida
Difference between Apterygota Pterygota
Metamorphosis slight or absent.
Metamorphosis incomplete or complete.
Adults with one or more preginital abdominal appendages.
Adult without preginital abdominal appendages
Adult mandible articulates with head.
Adult mandibles- Articulate with the head at two
Difference between Exopterygota Endopterygota
Wings develop externally.
Wings develop internally.
Immature stages are nymphWhich is resemble to adult In structure and habit.
Yong stage are called harvae with defferent from adult`sIn structure and habit.
Pupal instar absent.
Pupal instar present.
Exopterygota has 16 orders.
Endopterygota has 9 orders.
1. Body-small soft elongate delicate insects, Body flattened covered with silvery or green scale
2. Head- ectognathous
3. Mouthparts- chewing & biting
4. Eye-compound eye present but no ocelli
5. Antenna- long setaceous
6. Wing- wingless
7. Tarsi- 3-4 segmented with a pair of long cerci
8. Abdomen- 3-4 segmented with a pair of long cerci and 1-6 abdominal segment are not bear any appendages and 11th abdominal segment are forming a medium caudal filament
Silverfish- Lepisma saccharina
Firebrat- Thermobia domestica
1. Live in our books library or kitchen
2. They are feed on starch
3. They are also known as library pests
It is pest on starch food
They very much destructive on our valuable paper books journals and stiky attire or silky cloths
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Family – pediculidae
3. Mouthparts-highly modified piearcing & sucking
4. Eye- rudimentary or none
5. Antenna- sort
7. Leg-tarsus is segmented claw
10. Thoracic segment are fused
11. Mouthparts retract when not in use
12. Lice do not have wing or powerful jumping leg so they have move about by clinging to hair with claw like legs.
13. Cerci absent
14. Metamorphosis slight or simple
15. Adults range in colour
16. The eggs of lice are called nits
17. The eggs head lice are usually glued took hair of the head near the scalp
18. The favorite areas for female to gluc to the eggs are near the ear are back of the head
19. Under normal conditions the eggs will hatch in 7-11 days the young line which escape from the egg must feed on blood with in 24 hours or they will die
Both nymph and adult lice feed on human blood to feed the louse bites through their skin and injects saliva which prevent blood from clotting. it then sucks blood into its digestive tract blood sucking may continue for long period, if the louse is not disturb while feeding lice may straight dark red fetch on the skin when become someone infested with lice likely that the entire family will become infester rapidly and human lice called pedicelosis.
Nymph and adult insects are a parasitics of mammals
They feeding on mammals blood
As a result they transmit variance type of skin disease they act as a vector of three human diseases
Such as epidermis or louse born typhus trasnch fever and louse relapsing fever
1. Body-about 12-15 mm long colour shiny brown with yellowish wing and leg
3. Mouthparts- chewing type
4. Eye-compound present with ocelli
5. Antenna-14-15 segmented and filiform
6. Wing-forewing modified into tegmina and hind wing membranous
7. Leg-leg well developed equally size
8. Tarsi-segmented second tarsal segment expanded laterally
He europan eanwigs feedsou plant fruit flowers and other insects. They are omnivorous
This insect is considered a pest of crops although it feed other pest insect and eggs as well as plant parts earwig readily consume carn silk and can damage the crop so it is an omnivorous insects they also act as beneficial insects to destroy the pests insects and their eggs
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Family – thripidae
1. Body-adults are pale yellow or whitish in colour but with numerous dark selae on the body. Body length 0.8-1mm
3. Mouthparts-rasping sucking
4. Eye-compound , ocelli present
5. Antenna-6-9segmented and filiform
6. Wing-wing are narrow with fringed and more pointed at the tip the slender fringed wing are pale in colour
It include many pests species that suck up intercellular fluids of crops thrips tabaci are specially injurious took onion beans and tobacco they also act as a vector some bacterial fungal and viral disease of plant scirtothrips dorsali is responsible leaf carls disease chillus.
A. Male strepsiptera
1. 1-8 mm wing spand
2. Large berry type eyes
3. Hand shaped antenna
4. Fore wins reduce to knobs similar to the haltere
5. Hind wing large membranous with reduces venation
6. Mouthparts are reduced and non functional
B. Female strepsiptera
1. Larva like body, always wingless, leg absent, mouthparts reduced
All species of female and larvae. Stylopids parasitic a variety of insect order with most not confined to a single host species. Male stylopids have greatly reduced mouthpart and not feed
1. Compound eyes incontract for a considerable area on dorsum of head
2. Wings held horizontally when at rest
3. Hind wing are broader at base
4. Ovipositor normal
1. Body large broad winged with base of wings devoid of stalks
2. Both the fore and hind wing similar in shape
3. Wings identical & held vertically when at rest.
4. Eyes much smaller and look button like
5. E.g. damsel Fly-Archelestes californica
Both the adults and nymphs are predaceous. They feed boraciously on winged insects like mosquito midge fly and certain beetle and hymenopteran insects
Order-hymenoptera Family- TenthrednidaeCharacteristics
1. These are medium sized brightly coloured. Body length 5mm to about 20 mm
2. Antenn 7-9 segmented
3. Two apical spur on front tibia
4. Abdomen almost rectangular without constricton between abdomen and thorax
5. Larvae uciform
6. Ovipositor is well developed. Eggs are inserted by the saw like ovipositor into the leaf tissue and wood twig
The larvae are phytophagous feeding externally on foliage and in a few cases. They may be found in stem fruits or making a gall. A few species of saw fly are important as pests of crops shrubs and trees
1. The ichneumonidae are large slender black or radish yellow insects
2. Antenna very long many segmented not elsow
3. Trochanter are two segmented
4. Ovipositor very long and arises from some distance before the apex of the abdomen
The ichneumonidae are larval parasite. These are parasitic on many groups of insects and spider. A large number of ichnehmonidac are known as parasite of a number of crop pests. Malcha snaculicops are parasitic on the larvae of rice leaf roller
1. These are very small and stout bodied insects black yellow and brown in color
2. The abdomen of braconids are sessile, subsensile or petiolate
3. Antenna may be short or long
They are parasitic more commonly on lepidopteran insect and form a single catterpiller many individuals may tissue. They are also larval parasite
They all are social insects live on a large community
They have 3 class worker, shoulder and queen
1. Body- small and white in colour and white in colour appearance to translucent
2. Head- prognathus normal and round in shaped with normal jaw or mandibles
3. Mouthparts- chewing & biting
4. Eye- rudimentary or nor at all
5. Antenna –long and filliform
6. Wing large similar and semi membranous
7. Legs are week developed and equal in size
8. Tarsi always almost 4 segmented
2. Head- enlarged massive mandible or pointed rostrum
3. Mouth parts
6. Wing- there are 2 type of wing are found in our locality wingless condition or have a wing pad
7. Leg-well developed and equal in size
8. Tarsi 4 segmented
9. Abdomen- very large and lathery
4. Eye-have a round eye
6. Wing- 2similar elongated semi membranous wings are present, after dispersal flight and matting the wing fall off
9. Abdomen- very large and lathery
3. Mouthparts-chewing & biting
4. Eye- rudimentary or not
5. Antenna- moniliform
6. Wing-similar elongate and semi membranous
8. Tarsi- 4 segment
9. Abdomen-enlarge wide and lathery
1. Live in a soil or soil dwelling inset
2. They are the pest on cellulose
3. Substance that are planted furniture’s and building
4. They destroying our valuable assets
5. Such as furniture, house structure planted trees or crops and books
On the economic point of view they have positive and negative effects on the society
They feed on dead trees waste trees or unutilized a plant which are converted into green manure to uptake for another plants for their nutrition
They are very much harmful pests our daily life valuable books, furniture house structure and cultivated plants
1. Chalcids are medium sized stout boded insect
2. Body black mark with yellow
3. Hind femur grealtly enlarged
4. Wings held vertically when at rest
These are parasite coleoptera, diptera, lepioptera and neuropteran insect some are hyper porosities on other hymenopteran and dipteran insects. All challcids are pupal parasite
1. These are minute insects measuring point 3-1mm
2. Tarsi 3 segmented
3. Fore wing broader than hind wing fore wing bears some rough of microscopic hair
They are egg portions of a large number of insects specially Lepidoptera tricogramma species have been extensively utilized in biological control for crop pest
1. Golden brown in body color. Body is densely hairy.
2. Pollen basket present on the hind leg
They act as a pollinator produce as a lot of honey and wax
1. These are various in color
2. Antenna geniculate
3. The head of ants in variable in shape of size well develop mandible
The ants feed variously. Some are carneyporous feeding on egg and like animal. Some are fungi products some in feast plant and seeds and many are known to feed on sap nectar honey dew
1. These are yellow or rod insects with black makings
2. They usually have a long slender petiole
3. Antenna geniculate
They are enemy of honey bee and a species of predator
1. They can move around 300 degrees
2. Various type of antenna present in dipteran insect like as plumose aristate, stylate and filiform
3. Prothorax and metothorax are small and fused with large Mesothorax
4. Minor to small medium size insect
5. Most of the time 3 ocelli present
6. Compound eye large
7. Leg bears always 5 segmented tarsi
1. Minor to small insect’s relatively long antenna and legs
2. Antenna moniliform
3. Ocelli present or wonting
4. Venation greatly reduced cross vein absent
5. Larvae yellow to radish with the reduced head and leg less or apoda
6. Object or exarate pupae-enclosed into a puparium
7. Larvae saprophagus, phytophagus, zoophagus
8. Certain species of phytophagus larva severe damage by producing gall
These iscects show a great diversity in their habits; a few are pradaceous on parasitic other insect like aphid larvae and pupae and other fly; many are phytophagus and damage the plant various way. Majority of the species produce gall on various parts of plants by their secreated stimulating substances manmely cecidogen
1. Small to medium insect size 1/3 -1/2 inch long. Very delicate insect colour Ovipositor needle like
2. Head and eyes dark brown/ longer than house fly
3. Yellow spot or band present on their 1st abdominal segment
4. Adults female insect bore into the mature cucurbitaceous fruits, after hatching the larvae feed on fleshy parts of fruits, after than it becomes rotened and fall down the earth
Adults feed on juice from the decaying fruits, nectar and larvae feed on fleshy parts of fruits. Sometime phytophagus and saprophagus
1. Wing with scales on the veins and along the margin
2. Leg and proboscis is long
3. Mouth parts piercing sucking
4. Antennae six or more segmented
5. Plumose on male and pilose on female
Both male and female feed on nectar and plant julce only female such or feed on mammals blood before breeding. They also carries many pathogen such malaria(protozoa). Filanasis (nematods), yellow fever (virus)
Dengue (virus) and enceplelitis
1. Small insect 8-10mm in body length with 4 stripes and thorax, body black, dark brown or grayish in colour
2. Mouthparts sponging type
3. Leg clinging type
4. Antennae aristate 4 segmented
5. Wing clear
6. Compound eye black
They carry bacteria from affected person to non affected. Person and they also become a nuisance to man
1. Medium sized insects slightly larger than house fly and body length about 10-14mm
2. Body black abdomens metallic blue in colour
3. Antenna aristate 4 segmented
4. Mouthparts sponging type
They carries some protozoan pathogen and may cause dysentery
1. Lange flies body length 10-25mm black, dark brown, and grayish in color
2. Antenna stylate 3 segmented and the segment 3 modified into ring or hook
3. Mouthparts cutting sponging type
4. Compound eye large and bulging that is contiguous
5. On male and well separated on female
6. Horse fly eye black or green but deer fly eyes always black
Both male and female feed on nectar and pollen, nut only female suck the blood of like. Stock and sometime man. So they are the serious pests on livestock’s and man. They also vector of some bacteria and causes anthrax
1. Slightly larger than house fly size 8-25 mm
2. Black or grayish in color sometime blue in color
3. Compound eye red or black in color
4. Mouthparts sponging type
5. Whole abdomen covered with branched sharp hair
It is used as a biological control agent for control the pest. all are the species are excellent controller agent for control of pest in a garden
Difference symphyta & apophyta’
1. They have broad attachment between thorax and abdomen
2. They have much no constriction
3. There is no mark constriction or petiole between 1st and 2nd abdominal segment
4. Their lamae look like caterpillar
5. E.g. mustard sow fly
1. They have a much constriction between 1st & 2nd abdominal segment
2. They have maggot like larvae
3. All are apodous
1. Ichneumon Fly are large, slender, black or reddish yellow insects
2. A very long
3. Trochanters are two segmented
4. Often their ovipositor is very long and arises before the apex of abdomen
1. Ichneumon fly are larval parasite of cabbage diamond back moth potato tuber moth and cabbage webworm
2. They are parasitic or many groups of insects and spiders
3. A large number of Ichneumonidae are known as parasite of a number crop pest
4. Melcha maculiceps are parasitic on the larvae of rice leaf rollen
5. Diadigma semislausum was very small about 6mm-1cm long
6. They diadigma parasitic on the larvae of cabbage diamond back moth fly
1. Very small, stout bodied insect, black yellow and brown on colour
2. The abdomen of braconides are sessile, sub-sessile or petiolative
3. Antenna may be short or long
They are parasitic most commonly on lepidopteran insects and caterpillar
1. Medium sized stout bodied insects, body yellow with black markings
2. The wings are folded longitudinally when at rest
3. Hind femur greatly enlarged
1. Theys are parasites on coleoptera diptera Lepidoptera & neuropteran insects
2. Some are hyperparasiter pn other hymenopteran and dipteran insects
3. Chalads are most commonly pupal paresites
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1. These are minute insects measuring 0.3-1mm long
2. Tarsi 3 segmented
3. Fore wing broader than hind wing & beens row of microscopic hair
4. Economic important
5. They are egg parasite of a large number of insects specially Lepidoptera
6. Trichogra are used extensively as a biological contnolled agents
Difference between carpenter bee & bumble bee
1. Body black, shiny abdomes hairless
2. 3-4 inch long closely resemble to Bumble bee except they are shiny metallic greenish block & hairless.
3. Mouthparts notmal notenlense
4. Solitary hestan
5. Strong mandibles that are to poae wood
6. Bumble bee
1. Covered with hairy abdomen
2. Much larger than other bee some species are oven liar long
3. They are densely converted with yellow & black band of hair
4. They have long mouth parts aloe then together nectar from flower
5. They are social insects
1. Identified character
2. There are various in color
3. Antenna geniculate
4. Head of ant is variable in shaped and well developed mandibles
The ants feed on dead and living animals. Some are fungi various and some infested the plants and seeds. Many are known to feed on sap, nectar, honey dew and the like
1. These are red insects with two yellow band sometimes body black with point spotled
2. They usually have a bug petiole
3. Antenna geniculate
4. Mouthparts biting & chewing
5. Ovipositor modified for stinging
They are enemy of honey bee and also lepidopterans larvae. They act as a pollination
1. Very small to very large sized
2. Body wings and legs are covered with overlapping scales
3. Antenna variable claveted in butterfly
4. Filiform, thread like and comb like on moth
5. Compound eye is very prominent type
6. Ocelli two or absent
7. Mouth parts siphoning in adult and chewing in the larvae
8. Wing are membranous and are densely covered with sclales
9. Legs 3 pairs and have some modification
10. Metamorphosis complete
11. Larvae called caterpillar (each of the thoracic segment bear a pair of leg and abdominal segment) bears 5pair of abdominal appendages
12. Pupae is free in butterfly and enclosed in silken cooken in case of moth
Difference between monotrysia & ditrysia
1. Wing acculeate on pointed
2. Venation of fore & hind wings is same spiral
3. Proboscis never developed
4. Female with one or rarely two apertuses present on the ninth abdominal sternile
5. Wings are coupled by the over lapping lobes called jugum
1. Wing is not pointed, somewhat round shape
2. Spiral proboscis usually present
3. Venation of front & hind wings are different’
4. Wings are coupled normally by hook and bristle llike structure called trinulum
The larvae of mosr species are phytophagous, feeding on cultivated crops various fabrics and stored grain on mal. On the hand the larvae of few moths & butterflies are predaceous on scale insects mealy bugs, etc, The natural silk is obtained from the silk worm moth. The adult lepidopteran insect act as a pollination
mealy bug- homoptera ,liking bug –colleoptera
1. Leg modified for carrying
2. Pollen on transmitting pollen
3. They have pollen basket on hind leg
4. Golden brown on black in color
5. Body densely hairy, pollen basket present on the hind leg
6. Two pair of membranous wing, venation often much reduced hind wing are smaller then fore wing and connected to fore wing by the raw of hook lets
They act as pollinator & produce a lot of honey & wax
Moth 1. Body-fuzzy 2. Antennae-thread like or feathery 3. Color- dull in color 4. Wings-linked together with a bristle like structure called frinulum 5. Fore leg- fully develop 6. Pupae-spinra cocoon 7. Activity – fly at night 8. Resting posture- held horizontal when rest Butterfly 1. Body-Smooth 2. Antenna-Clavate 3. Color-bright 4. Wings- not linked or no frinulum 5. Resting posture-held together vertical when at rest 6. Fore leg- reduced & missing terminal segment 7. Pupae- not in cocoon 8. Fly in during the day
2. Antennae-thread like or feathery
3. Color- dull in color
4. Wings-linked together with a bristle like structure called frinulum
5. Fore leg- fully develop
6. Pupae-spinra cocoon
7. Activity – fly at night
8. Resting posture- held horizontal when rest
4. Wings- not linked or no frinulum
5. Resting posture-held together vertical when at rest
6. Fore leg- reduced & missing terminal segment
7. Pupae- not in cocoon
8. Fly in during the day
1. Body medium in size
2. Legs are alike and normal in both sexes
3. Usually either white yellow or arrange colored with its black markings
4. Hind wings with two anal veins
5. Larvae elongated & bears numerous secondary setae
They feed on the leaves of cauliflower & cabbage
1. Medium to large size beautiful and brightly colored butterfly
2. Antennae strongly clavate
3. Hind wings provided with conspicuous tail like prolongation in swallow tail butterfly
4. Incase of lemon butterfly on the hind wing towards the inner margin a brick red oval spot is present
5. Legs are normal
The larvae of swallow tail butterfly feeds on carrots and related plants. The larvae of lemon butterfly feeds on young leaves of either plant
1. Identified character
2. Small to medium size insect
3. Antenna-with recurved point
4. Wings partly open when at rest
5. Abdomen stout and robust
6. They fly by skips
7. Skippers is intermediate between moth & butterfly
They are the pest of rice. It feeds on leaves & stem of rice plant
1. Body stout & robust
3. Wings spotted & held horizontal when at rest above the body
Jute groundnut cotton cauliflower cabbage and lettuce
1. Antenna filiform
2. Fore wing cryptic in color and hind wings are white in color
3. Labial palpi are usually long & maxillary palpi are vestigial non functional
They are serious pest of potato, rice and cotton. They are nocturnal in habit & attracted to light at night. Larvae are known as cut worm because they cut seedling at nigh
1. Small in size
2. Hind wing with posterior margin sinuate and with stripes
3. The labial palpi are long and up curved, terminal segment is long and pointed
They are very much destructive to crops. The larvae of potato tuber moth mine the leaves & burrow into the tubers of potato it the field & on store. Similarly the angoumes grain moth is a serious pest of stored grains. Sometimes sorghum & pady in the field.The pink boll worm is a serious pest of cotton which feeds whiten the seeds of cotton
1. Robust & cream colored
2. Antenna bipectinate
3. Proboscis absent
4. Wing is very weak
5. They can not fly because their body robust & wing is very weak
The larvae of silk worm moths are spired the quality cocoon from their salivary gland or silk gland. We get quality row silk from. Also a few numbers of species are known as a pest of crops
1. Very large and heavy bodied moth
2. The transparent eye-spot present near the centre of each wing
3. Antenna bipectinate
4. Labial pulps minute
5. Spur absent on tibia
The larva pupates in a dense, firm cocoon which in several species yields of silk have a commercial value. Such as eri-silk moth. The mango hairy caterpillar feeds on the foliage of mango, pepper and tea
1. Medium to large sized moth
2. The body is somewhat spindle shaped tapering and pointed both interiorly & posterior
3. Antenna are thickened towards the middle and usually hooked
4. Proboscis very longLarva with a prominent abdominal horn
5. They are strong fliers
6. They are crepuscular in habit
7. They come out at the evening period
They are serious pest of crops. Such as tell & sweet potato. It feeds on leaves voraciously
Any insect of the order Orthoptera with straight narrow fore wings & hind legs modified for jumping mouthparts biting & chewing type.
Orhos –straight, rectangular, erect
1. Antenna much shorter than the body
2. Tarsi three segmented
3. Ovipositor short
4. Sound producing organ present at the base of the abdomen
5. Mouth parts biting & chewing
6. Hind legs modified for jumping
7. Wing straight narrow & rectangular in shape
Short horned grasshopper is the main pest of rice & locust feeds on all the vegetation on their way
1. Antenna is equal in body size or longer than the body
2. Tarsi four segmented
3. Sound producing organ present at the base of front tibia
4. Ovipositor long & flattened look like blade or sword .
Mostly they are phytophagous and can somerimes be serious pest of cultivated plants
1. They have long unregimented or undivided cerci
2. Ovipositor needle like
3. Sound producing organ present at the base of tibia
4. Hind legs modified for jumping
Mostly they are omnivorus and serious pest of sugarcane. They cut the young seedling of rice jute & vegetables at the soil surface
1. Body pubescent or soft down on insects
2. Body covered by the short soft hair
3. Eye very much reduced
4. Fore leg modified for digging
5. Ovipositor vegetigial
There are main pest of jute plant. The young seedling at the base or below the soil surface
1. Body elongated, oval shaped
2. Generally bright coloured insect with red and black marking”s.
3. The rostrum is four segmented.
4. Mouth parts piercing sucking
The pyrrhoeoridaes are saprophagous.The red cotton bug,both adult and nymph suck the sap from tender of the plants and bolls.
1. The coreid bugs are generally medium to large insects
2. Head narrower and shorter than the pronotum.
3. Antenna four segmented.
4. Mouth parts piercing sucking.
The nymph and adult suck sap from the tender stem,peduncle and milky grain.They suck milky sap from the developing grains of rice by insering the proboscis.
1. The scurtellum is very large and extended to the apex of the abdomen.
2. MPs piercing sucking.
3. Brilliant colour insect.
4. Antenna 4 segmented.
They are phytophagous and major pest of bringal.
1. They are moderate to large siged insects.
2. Antenna 5 segmented
3. Scutellum triangular in shape.
4. Tarsi 5 segmented.
5. Stunk gland present on the thorax.
6. MPs piercing sucking.
Peutatorids are phytophagous and predaceous in habit.
1. Very large in size brown colour insect.
2. Body oval and somewhat flattened.
3. Hind leg modified for swimming and four legs with sharp claw and modified for grasping.
4. Aquatic in habitat.
These bug occur in plants and lakes and predaceous other small insects, fishes, tadpoles etc.
1. They have slender bodies and are about 8-12 mm long with tan or grayish brown in colour.
2. MPs piercing sucking.
3. Four legs enlarge and modified for grasping their prey.
4. Antenna 4 segmented.
5. Nymph resembles adults, except they are smaller and have no wing.
Damsel bug are predaceous, agricultural pest. These bugs catch and hold prey with their fore legs, similar to mautids. Adults and nymphs feed on many soft bodied insects including aphids, spider, mite, leaf hopper and small caterpillars. Adult are suift and aggressive and rapidly suck the body couteuts from their prey.
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2. Their body length of around 40 mm (1.6 inch)
3. They are reddish brown & have yellowish margin on the body region behind the head
4. Leg with conspicuous hair & eye pattern on their thorax
5. Antenna long & yellow edges on the front part of fore wing
6. Cerci long & jointed 18-19 segments in male & 13-14 segments on female
7. A pair of style present between the cerci in male
They are omnivorous. They are known as pest in home holds. They transmitted diseases when they occur in house & restaurants. They can contaminate food & must be controlled
1. Prothorax is commonly elongated & flexibly articulated allowing for greater range of movement of the front limb. Permitting nearly 300 degrees of movement
2. Fore leg modified for grasping or raptorial
3. Front tibia with true apical hook, tarsus articulating laterally at the base
4. Hind wing with one simple vein increase between lobe & anterior part
5. Body & elytra green in colour
6. Eyes slightly cone shaped but blunt
They are predator or predaceous in habit & feed on small insects. Such as aphid flies & some hymenoptera insect
Alius-one, duo- Two, Treies – Three, Quattuor-four, Quinque –five, Sex- Six, Septem- seven
Norem-nine, Octo- Eight, Decen-Ten, Viginti-Twenty
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Any insect of the order homoptera with wing of a uniform texture. Order homoptera may divide into two suborder-Coleorrlynche and Auchenorrhynche.
Wing present under the sheeth on wing covered with sheeth.
Origin of beahat anterior ventral extremity of face propleure form a sheeth for base of beak .Hind wings absent .Fore wing held flat over abdomen when at rest. No flight function prothorax with paranota digestive trect lacks filter chambers. No sound producing organ present.
Beek arise at antero ventral extremity of the face, not sheathed by propleure antenna with 1-3 basal segments with terminal seta, fore wing roof like when at rest. Fiter chamber present at digestive tract all male apparently produce sound.
1. Size very small to very large.
2. Body fuzzy, smooth and covered with overlapping scale.
3. Antenna clavate in butterfly, filiform or thread like in moth.
4. MPs siphoning in adult and chewing in large in larva siphoning is long and coiled.
5. Wing membranous and covered densely with scale.
6. Leg 3 pairs and found some modification.’
7. Metamorphosis complete.
8. Larva is caterpillar.
Adult insect act as pollinators. The larva of most species is phytophagous. Feeding on cultivated crops, various fabrics and stoned grain on the other hand the larval of few moth and butterfly is on scale insects bugs etc.
1. Soft bodied insect pear shaped.
2. Antenna 6 segmented.
3. Fore wings with 4-6 veins below the darkened stigma
4. Wing membranous Rs vein present in fore wings.
5. Sexual females oviparous and parthenogenetive females viviparous.
6. Without adultant wax gland.
Many species of aphids are serious pests. causing major economic losses by various combination of feeding injury and the vectoring of plant pathogenic virus .cell sap from twig ,branch and leaves .Honey dew a clear liquid secreted from the anus is use as food by ants and many insects.
1. Females flattened,elongates oval.exoskeleton hard ,smooth or wax covered
2. Legs present or absent
3. Antenna absent or much reduced
4. Females often tortoise shaped and males or wingles
5. Anus covered by 2 dorsal plates.
They suck the sap from the bark of plant
1. Females globular inform
2. Always legless
3. Antenna 3 or 4 segmented
4. They are minute & body enclosed in cells of resin
The resinous recreation of the females provides the stick lac & seed lac which has a great commercial value. It is used to made electrical insulator, lipstick, gramophone record & shellac shrllac is also used in jewelry function.
1. Body covered with white powdery secretion
2. Wax gland opening on dorsum
3. Anal ring with four or more setae
4. Dorsal ostioles and usually 1-4 circuli present
They attack a great variety of economically important crops, including coffee, mango, and cotton
1. Mostly small wing when present number 2-4
2. Mouth part sucking type
3. Most are plant feeders more than 32000 species
4. Worldwide distribution
1. No sound producing organ present
2. Lack of filter chamber
3. Fore wing held flat over abdomen when rest
4. Propleura form sheath for base of beak
1. All male produce sound
2. Filter chamber present
3. Fore wing roof like when rest
4. Not formed sheathed by propleura