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ENT 222-Systematic entomology

Systematic entomology

ENT-222

DEFFERENCE BETWEEN INSECT AND MITE:

INSECT

MITE

(1)Insect’s has three pairs of legs

(1) Mites has 4 pairs of legs.

(2)Body divided into three regions:

(2) Body divided into two regions:

Head, Thorax, and Abdomen.

Cephalothorax and abdomen.

(3)Not microscopic.

(3)Microscopic.

(4)Insect under the class insecta.

(4)Mite under the class arachida

Difference between Apterygota Pterygota

APTERYGOTA:

PTERYGOTA:

Wingless insect.

Winged insect.

Metamorphosis slight or absent.

Metamorphosis incomplete or complete.

Adults with one or more preginital abdominal appendages.

Adult without preginital abdominal appendages

Adult mandible articulates with head.

Adult mandibles- Articulate with the head at two

Points.

Difference between Exopterygota Endopterygota

Exopterygota

endopterygota

Wings develop externally.

Wings develop internally.

Metamorphosis incomplete.

Metamorphosis complete.

Immature stages are nymphWhich is resemble to adult In structure and habit.

Yong stage are called harvae with defferent from adult`sIn structure and habit.

Pupal instar absent.

Pupal instar present.

Exopterygota has 16 orders.

Endopterygota has 9 orders.

Thysanura

Family- lepismatidae

Characteristics

1. Body-small soft elongate delicate insects, Body flattened covered with silvery or green scale

2. Head- ectognathous

3. Mouthparts- chewing & biting

4. Eye-compound eye present but no ocelli

5. Antenna- long setaceous

6. Wing- wingless

7. Tarsi- 3-4 segmented with a pair of long cerci

8. Abdomen- 3-4 segmented with a pair of long cerci and 1-6 abdominal segment are not bear any appendages and 11th abdominal segment are forming a medium caudal filament

E.g.

Silverfish- Lepisma saccharina

Firebrat- Thermobia domestica

Habitat

1. Live in our books library or kitchen

2. They are feed on starch

3. They are also known as library pests

Economic importance

It is pest on starch food

They very much destructive on our valuable paper books journals and stiky attire or silky cloths

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Anoplura

Family – pediculidae

Characteristics

1. Body-

2. Head-

3. Mouthparts-highly modified piearcing & sucking

4. Eye- rudimentary or none

5. Antenna- sort

6. Wing-

7. Leg-tarsus is segmented claw

8. Tarsi-

9. Abdomen-

10. Thoracic segment are fused

11. Mouthparts retract when not in use

12. Lice do not have wing or powerful jumping leg so they have move about by clinging to hair with claw like legs.

13. Cerci absent

14. Metamorphosis slight or simple

15. Adults range in colour

16. The eggs of lice are called nits

17. The eggs head lice are usually glued took hair of the head near the scalp

18. The favorite areas for female to gluc to the eggs are near the ear are back of the head

19. Under normal conditions the eggs will hatch in 7-11 days the young line which escape from the egg must feed on blood with in 24 hours or they will die

Habit

Both nymph and adult lice feed on human blood to feed the louse bites through their skin and injects saliva which prevent blood from clotting. it then sucks blood into its digestive tract blood sucking may continue for long period, if the louse is not disturb while feeding lice may straight dark red fetch on the skin when become someone infested with lice likely that the entire family will become infester rapidly and human lice called pedicelosis.

Economic importance

Nymph and adult insects are a parasitics of mammals

They feeding on mammals blood

As a result they transmit variance type of skin disease they act as a vector of three human diseases

Such as epidermis or louse born typhus trasnch fever and louse relapsing fever

Dermaptera

Family –Forficulidae

Characteristics

1. Body-about 12-15 mm long colour shiny brown with yellowish wing and leg

2. Head

3. Mouthparts- chewing type

4. Eye-compound present with ocelli

5. Antenna-14-15 segmented and filiform

6. Wing-forewing modified into tegmina and hind wing membranous

7. Leg-leg well developed equally size

8. Tarsi-segmented second tarsal segment expanded laterally

9. Abdomen

Habit

He europan eanwigs feedsou plant fruit flowers and other insects. They are omnivorous

Economic importance

This insect is considered a pest of crops although it feed other pest insect and eggs as well as plant parts earwig readily consume carn silk and can damage the crop so it is an omnivorous insects they also act as beneficial insects to destroy the pests insects and their eggs

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Thysanoptera

Family – thripidae

Characteristics

1. Body-adults are pale yellow or whitish in colour but with numerous dark selae on the body. Body length 0.8-1mm

2. Head

3. Mouthparts-rasping sucking

4. Eye-compound , ocelli present

5. Antenna-6-9segmented and filiform

6. Wing-wing are narrow with fringed and more pointed at the tip the slender fringed wing are pale in colour

7. Leg

8. Tarsi

9. Abdomen

Economic important

It include many pests species that suck up intercellular fluids of crops thrips tabaci are specially injurious took onion beans and tobacco they also act as a vector some bacterial fungal and viral disease of plant scirtothrips dorsali is responsible leaf carls disease chillus.

Order-strepsiptera

Family –stylopidae

Characteristics

A. Male strepsiptera

1. 1-8 mm wing spand

2. Large berry type eyes

3. Hand shaped antenna

4. Fore wins reduce to knobs similar to the haltere

5. Hind wing large membranous with reduces venation

6. Mouthparts are reduced and non functional

B. Female strepsiptera

1. Larva like body, always wingless, leg absent, mouthparts reduced

Economic Importance

All species of female and larvae. Stylopids parasitic a variety of insect order with most not confined to a single host species. Male stylopids have greatly reduced mouthpart and not feed

Order- Odonata

Family –Aeshnidae

Characteristics

1. Compound eyes incontract for a considerable area on dorsum of head

2. Wings held horizontally when at rest

3. Hind wing are broader at base

4. Ovipositor normal

Family-Agrionidae

Characteristics

1. Body large broad winged with base of wings devoid of stalks

2. Both the fore and hind wing similar in shape

3. Wings identical & held vertically when at rest.

4. Eyes much smaller and look button like

5. E.g. damsel Fly-Archelestes californica

Economic Importance

Both the adults and nymphs are predaceous. They feed boraciously on winged insects like mosquito midge fly and certain beetle and hymenopteran insects

Order-hymenoptera Family- TenthrednidaeCharacteristics

1. These are medium sized brightly coloured. Body length 5mm to about 20 mm

2. Antenn 7-9 segmented

3. Two apical spur on front tibia

4. Abdomen almost rectangular without constricton between abdomen and thorax

5. Larvae uciform

6. Ovipositor is well developed. Eggs are inserted by the saw like ovipositor into the leaf tissue and wood twig

Economic Importance

The larvae are phytophagous feeding externally on foliage and in a few cases. They may be found in stem fruits or making a gall. A few species of saw fly are important as pests of crops shrubs and trees

Family –ichneumonidae

Characteristics

1. The ichneumonidae are large slender black or radish yellow insects

2. Antenna very long many segmented not elsow

3. Trochanter are two segmented

4. Ovipositor very long and arises from some distance before the apex of the abdomen

Economic Importance

The ichneumonidae are larval parasite. These are parasitic on many groups of insects and spider. A large number of ichnehmonidac are known as parasite of a number of crop pests. Malcha snaculicops are parasitic on the larvae of rice leaf roller

Family –braconidae

1. These are very small and stout bodied insects black yellow and brown in color

2. The abdomen of braconids are sessile, subsensile or petiolate

3. Antenna may be short or long

Economic Important

They are parasitic more commonly on lepidopteran insect and form a single catterpiller many individuals may tissue. They are also larval parasite

Isoptera

Isos=equal

Pteron= wing

Characteristics

They all are social insects live on a large community

They have 3 class worker, shoulder and queen

Worker

1. Body- small and white in colour and white in colour appearance to translucent

2. Head- prognathus normal and round in shaped with normal jaw or mandibles

3. Mouthparts- chewing & biting

4. Eye- rudimentary or nor at all

5. Antenna –long and filliform

6. Wing large similar and semi membranous

7. Legs are week developed and equal in size

8. Tarsi always almost 4 segmented

Solder

1. Body

2. Head- enlarged massive mandible or pointed rostrum

3. Mouth parts

4. Eye-

5. Antenna-

6. Wing- there are 2 type of wing are found in our locality wingless condition or have a wing pad

7. Leg-well developed and equal in size

8. Tarsi 4 segmented

9. Abdomen- very large and lathery

Queen

1. Body

2. Head

3. Mouthparts

4. Eye-have a round eye

5. Antenna

6. Wing- 2similar elongated semi membranous wings are present, after dispersal flight and matting the wing fall off

7. Leg-

8. Tarsi

9. Abdomen- very large and lathery

Family- termitidae

1. Body-soft

2. Head-prognathes

3. Mouthparts-chewing & biting

4. Eye- rudimentary or not

5. Antenna- moniliform

6. Wing-similar elongate and semi membranous

7. Leg-

8. Tarsi- 4 segment

9. Abdomen-enlarge wide and lathery

Habitat

1. Live in a soil or soil dwelling inset

2. They are the pest on cellulose

3. Substance that are planted furniture’s and building

4. They destroying our valuable assets

5. Such as furniture, house structure planted trees or crops and books

Economic importance

On the economic point of view they have positive and negative effects on the society

Positive effects-

They feed on dead trees waste trees or unutilized a plant which are converted into green manure to uptake for another plants for their nutrition

Negative

They are very much harmful pests our daily life valuable books, furniture house structure and cultivated plants

Hymenoptera

Family –chalcid

Characteristics

1. Chalcids are medium sized stout boded insect

2. Body black mark with yellow

3. Hind femur grealtly enlarged

4. Wings held vertically when at rest

Economic importance

These are parasite coleoptera, diptera, lepioptera and neuropteran insect some are hyper porosities on other hymenopteran and dipteran insects. All challcids are pupal parasite

Tricogrommatidae

Characteristics

1. These are minute insects measuring point 3-1mm

2. Tarsi 3 segmented

3. Fore wing broader than hind wing fore wing bears some rough of microscopic hair

Economic Importance

They are egg portions of a large number of insects specially Lepidoptera tricogramma species have been extensively utilized in biological control for crop pest

Apidae

Characteristics

1. Golden brown in body color. Body is densely hairy.

2. Pollen basket present on the hind leg

Economic Important

They act as a pollinator produce as a lot of honey and wax

Formicidae

Characteristics

1. These are various in color

2. Antenna geniculate

3. The head of ants in variable in shape of size well develop mandible

Economic Importance

The ants feed variously. Some are carneyporous feeding on egg and like animal. Some are fungi products some in feast plant and seeds and many are known to feed on sap nectar honey dew

Vespidae

Characteristics

1. These are yellow or rod insects with black makings

2. They usually have a long slender petiole

3. Antenna geniculate

Economic Important

They are enemy of honey bee and a species of predator

Order –diptera

Characteristics

1. They can move around 300 degrees

2. Various type of antenna present in dipteran insect like as plumose aristate, stylate and filiform

3. Prothorax and metothorax are small and fused with large Mesothorax

4. Minor to small medium size insect

5. Most of the time 3 ocelli present

6. Compound eye large

7. Leg bears always 5 segmented tarsi

Family-cecidomylidae

Characteristics

1. Minor to small insect’s relatively long antenna and legs

2. Antenna moniliform

3. Ocelli present or wonting

4. Venation greatly reduced cross vein absent

5. Larvae yellow to radish with the reduced head and leg less or apoda

6. Object or exarate pupae-enclosed into a puparium

7. Larvae saprophagus, phytophagus, zoophagus

8. Certain species of phytophagus larva severe damage by producing gall

Economic Importance

These iscects show a great diversity in their habits; a few are pradaceous on parasitic other insect like aphid larvae and pupae and other fly; many are phytophagus and damage the plant various way. Majority of the species produce gall on various parts of plants by their secreated stimulating substances manmely cecidogen

Tephritidae

Characteristics

1. Small to medium insect size 1/3 -1/2 inch long. Very delicate insect colour Ovipositor needle like

2. Head and eyes dark brown/ longer than house fly

3. Yellow spot or band present on their 1st abdominal segment

4. Adults female insect bore into the mature cucurbitaceous fruits, after hatching the larvae feed on fleshy parts of fruits, after than it becomes rotened and fall down the earth

Economic importance

Adults feed on juice from the decaying fruits, nectar and larvae feed on fleshy parts of fruits. Sometime phytophagus and saprophagus

Family-culicidae

Characteristics

1. Wing with scales on the veins and along the margin

2. Leg and proboscis is long

3. Mouth parts piercing sucking

4. Antennae six or more segmented

5. Plumose on male and pilose on female

Economic Importance

Both male and female feed on nectar and plant julce only female such or feed on mammals blood before breeding. They also carries many pathogen such malaria(protozoa). Filanasis (nematods), yellow fever (virus)

Dengue (virus) and enceplelitis

Muscidae

Characteristics

1. Small insect 8-10mm in body length with 4 stripes and thorax, body black, dark brown or grayish in colour

2. Mouthparts sponging type

3. Leg clinging type

4. Antennae aristate 4 segmented

5. Wing clear

6. Compound eye black

Economic Importance

They carry bacteria from affected person to non affected. Person and they also become a nuisance to man

Calliphoridae

Characteristics

1. Medium sized insects slightly larger than house fly and body length about 10-14mm

2. Body black abdomens metallic blue in colour

3. Antenna aristate 4 segmented

4. Mouthparts sponging type

Economic Importance

They carries some protozoan pathogen and may cause dysentery

Tabanidae

Characteristics

1. Lange flies body length 10-25mm black, dark brown, and grayish in color

2. Antenna stylate 3 segmented and the segment 3 modified into ring or hook

3. Mouthparts cutting sponging type

4. Compound eye large and bulging that is contiguous

5. On male and well separated on female

6. Horse fly eye black or green but deer fly eyes always black

Economic Importance

Both male and female feed on nectar and pollen, nut only female suck the blood of like. Stock and sometime man. So they are the serious pests on livestock’s and man. They also vector of some bacteria and causes anthrax

Tachinidae

Characteristics

1. Slightly larger than house fly size 8-25 mm

2. Black or grayish in color sometime blue in color

3. Compound eye red or black in color

4. Mouthparts sponging type

5. Whole abdomen covered with branched sharp hair

Economic Importance

It is used as a biological control agent for control the pest. all are the species are excellent controller agent for control of pest in a garden

Difference symphyta & apophyta’

Symphyta

1. They have broad attachment between thorax and abdomen

2. They have much no constriction

3. There is no mark constriction or petiole between 1st and 2nd abdominal segment

4. Their lamae look like caterpillar

5. E.g. mustard sow fly

Apophyta

1. They have a much constriction between 1st & 2nd abdominal segment

2. They have maggot like larvae

3. All are apodous

Ichneumonidae

Character

1. Ichneumon Fly are large, slender, black or reddish yellow insects

2. A very long

3. Trochanters are two segmented

4. Often their ovipositor is very long and arises before the apex of abdomen

Economic important

1. Ichneumon fly are larval parasite of cabbage diamond back moth potato tuber moth and cabbage webworm

2. They are parasitic or many groups of insects and spiders

3. A large number of Ichneumonidae are known as parasite of a number crop pest

4. Melcha maculiceps are parasitic on the larvae of rice leaf rollen

5. Diadigma semislausum was very small about 6mm-1cm long

6. They diadigma parasitic on the larvae of cabbage diamond back moth fly

Family-bracnidae

Identified character

1. Very small, stout bodied insect, black yellow and brown on colour

2. The abdomen of braconides are sessile, sub-sessile or petiolative

3. Antenna may be short or long

Economic important

They are parasitic most commonly on lepidopteran insects and caterpillar

Family-chaleidae

Identified character

1. Medium sized stout bodied insects, body yellow with black markings

2. The wings are folded longitudinally when at rest

3. Hind femur greatly enlarged

Economic important

1. Theys are parasites on coleoptera diptera Lepidoptera & neuropteran insects

2. Some are hyperparasiter pn other hymenopteran and dipteran insects

3. Chalads are most commonly pupal paresites

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Family –trichogrammatidae

Identified character

1. These are minute insects measuring 0.3-1mm long

2. Tarsi 3 segmented

3. Fore wing broader than hind wing & beens row of microscopic hair

4. Economic important

5. They are egg parasite of a large number of insects specially Lepidoptera

6. Trichogra are used extensively as a biological contnolled agents

Family –apidae

Difference between carpenter bee & bumble bee

Carpenter bee

Identified character

1. Body black, shiny abdomes hairless

2. 3-4 inch long closely resemble to Bumble bee except they are shiny metallic greenish block & hairless.

3. Mouthparts notmal notenlense

4. Solitary hestan

5. Strong mandibles that are to poae wood

6. Bumble bee

Identified character

1. Covered with hairy abdomen

2. Much larger than other bee some species are oven liar long

3. They are densely converted with yellow & black band of hair

4. They have long mouth parts aloe then together nectar from flower

5. They are social insects

Family- Formicidae

Identified character

1. Identified character

2. There are various in color

3. Antenna geniculate

4. Head of ant is variable in shaped and well developed mandibles

Economic important

The ants feed on dead and living animals. Some are fungi various and some infested the plants and seeds. Many are known to feed on sap, nectar, honey dew and the like

Family- vespidae

Identified character

1. These are red insects with two yellow band sometimes body black with point spotled

2. They usually have a bug petiole

3. Antenna geniculate

4. Mouthparts biting & chewing

5. Ovipositor modified for stinging

Economic important

They are enemy of honey bee and also lepidopterans larvae. They act as a pollination

Order- Lepidoptera

Identified character

1. Very small to very large sized

2. Body wings and legs are covered with overlapping scales

3. Antenna variable claveted in butterfly

4. Filiform, thread like and comb like on moth

5. Compound eye is very prominent type

6. Ocelli two or absent

7. Mouth parts siphoning in adult and chewing in the larvae

8. Wing are membranous and are densely covered with sclales

9. Legs 3 pairs and have some modification

10. Metamorphosis complete

11. Larvae called caterpillar (each of the thoracic segment bear a pair of leg and abdominal segment) bears 5pair of abdominal appendages

12. Pupae is free in butterfly and enclosed in silken cooken in case of moth

Difference between monotrysia & ditrysia

Monotrysia

Identified character

1. Wing acculeate on pointed

2. Venation of fore & hind wings is same spiral

3. Proboscis never developed

4. Female with one or rarely two apertuses present on the ninth abdominal sternile

5. Wings are coupled by the over lapping lobes called jugum

Ditrysia

Identified character

1. Wing is not pointed, somewhat round shape

2. Spiral proboscis usually present

3. Venation of front & hind wings are different’

4. Wings are coupled normally by hook and bristle llike structure called trinulum

Economic important’

The larvae of mosr species are phytophagous, feeding on cultivated crops various fabrics and stored grain on mal. On the hand the larvae of few moths & butterflies are predaceous on scale insects mealy bugs, etc, The natural silk is obtained from the silk worm moth. The adult lepidopteran insect act as a pollination

mealy bug- homoptera ,liking bug –colleoptera

Identified character

1. Leg modified for carrying

2. Pollen on transmitting pollen

3. They have pollen basket on hind leg

4. Golden brown on black in color

5. Body densely hairy, pollen basket present on the hind leg

6. Two pair of membranous wing, venation often much reduced hind wing are smaller then fore wing and connected to fore wing by the raw of hook lets

Economic important

They act as pollinator & produce a lot of honey & wax

Moth

1. Body-fuzzy

2. Antennae-thread like or feathery

3. Color- dull in color

4. Wings-linked together with a bristle like structure called frinulum

5. Fore leg- fully develop

6. Pupae-spinra cocoon

7. Activity – fly at night

8. Resting posture- held horizontal when rest

Butterfly

1. Body-Smooth

2. Antenna-Clavate

3. Color-bright

4. Wings- not linked or no frinulum

5. Resting posture-held together vertical when at rest

6. Fore leg- reduced & missing terminal segment

7. Pupae- not in cocoon

8. Fly in during the day

Difference between moth & butterfly

Family- pieridae

Identified character

1. Body medium in size

2. Legs are alike and normal in both sexes

3. Usually either white yellow or arrange colored with its black markings

4. Hind wings with two anal veins

5. Larvae elongated & bears numerous secondary setae

Economic important

They feed on the leaves of cauliflower & cabbage

Family- Papilionidae

Identified character

1. Medium to large size beautiful and brightly colored butterfly

2. Antennae strongly clavate

3. Hind wings provided with conspicuous tail like prolongation in swallow tail butterfly

4. Incase of lemon butterfly on the hind wing towards the inner margin a brick red oval spot is present

5. Legs are normal

Economic important

The larvae of swallow tail butterfly feeds on carrots and related plants. The larvae of lemon butterfly feeds on young leaves of either plant

Family-hesperidae

1. Identified character

2. Small to medium size insect

3. Antenna-with recurved point

4. Wings partly open when at rest

5. Abdomen stout and robust

6. They fly by skips

7. Skippers is intermediate between moth & butterfly

Economic important

They are the pest of rice. It feeds on leaves & stem of rice plant

Familu-arctiidae

Identified character

1. Body stout & robust

2. Abdomen-banded

3. Wings spotted & held horizontal when at rest above the body

Economic important

Jute groundnut cotton cauliflower cabbage and lettuce

Family- noctudae

Identified character

1. Antenna filiform

2. Fore wing cryptic in color and hind wings are white in color

3. Labial palpi are usually long & maxillary palpi are vestigial non functional

Economic important

They are serious pest of potato, rice and cotton. They are nocturnal in habit & attracted to light at night. Larvae are known as cut worm because they cut seedling at nigh

Gelechiidae

Character

1. Small in size

2. Hind wing with posterior margin sinuate and with stripes

3. The labial palpi are long and up curved, terminal segment is long and pointed

Economic important

They are very much destructive to crops. The larvae of potato tuber moth mine the leaves & burrow into the tubers of potato it the field & on store. Similarly the angoumes grain moth is a serious pest of stored grains. Sometimes sorghum & pady in the field.The pink boll worm is a serious pest of cotton which feeds whiten the seeds of cotton

Family-bombicidy

Character

1. Robust & cream colored

2. Antenna bipectinate

3. Proboscis absent

4. Wing is very weak

5. They can not fly because their body robust & wing is very weak

Economic important

The larvae of silk worm moths are spired the quality cocoon from their salivary gland or silk gland. We get quality row silk from. Also a few numbers of species are known as a pest of crops

Family-saturniidae

Character

1. Very large and heavy bodied moth

2. The transparent eye-spot present near the centre of each wing

3. Antenna bipectinate

4. Labial pulps minute

5. Spur absent on tibia

Economic important

The larva pupates in a dense, firm cocoon which in several species yields of silk have a commercial value. Such as eri-silk moth. The mango hairy caterpillar feeds on the foliage of mango, pepper and tea

Family- sphingidae

Character

1. Medium to large sized moth

2. The body is somewhat spindle shaped tapering and pointed both interiorly & posterior

3. Antenna are thickened towards the middle and usually hooked

4. Proboscis very longLarva with a prominent abdominal horn

5. They are strong fliers

6. They are crepuscular in habit

7. They come out at the evening period

Economic important

They are serious pest of crops. Such as tell & sweet potato. It feeds on leaves voraciously

Orthoptera

Any insect of the order Orthoptera with straight narrow fore wings & hind legs modified for jumping mouthparts biting & chewing type.

Orhos –straight, rectangular, erect

Family-aerididae

Character

1. Antenna much shorter than the body

2. Tarsi three segmented

3. Ovipositor short

4. Sound producing organ present at the base of the abdomen

5. Mouth parts biting & chewing

6. Hind legs modified for jumping

7. Wing straight narrow & rectangular in shape

Economic important

Short horned grasshopper is the main pest of rice & locust feeds on all the vegetation on their way

Family-Tettigoniidae

Character

1. Antenna is equal in body size or longer than the body

2. Tarsi four segmented

3. Sound producing organ present at the base of front tibia

4. Ovipositor long & flattened look like blade or sword .

Economic important

Mostly they are phytophagous and can somerimes be serious pest of cultivated plants

Family-gryllidae

Character

1. They have long unregimented or undivided cerci

2. Ovipositor needle like

3. Sound producing organ present at the base of tibia

4. Hind legs modified for jumping

Economic

Mostly they are omnivorus and serious pest of sugarcane. They cut the young seedling of rice jute & vegetables at the soil surface

Family-gryllotalpidae

Character

1. Body pubescent or soft down on insects

2. Body covered by the short soft hair

3. Eye very much reduced

4. Fore leg modified for digging

5. Ovipositor vegetigial

Economic

There are main pest of jute plant. The young seedling at the base or below the soil surface

Hemiptera

Family-Pyrrhoeoridae

Character

1. Body elongated, oval shaped

2. Generally bright coloured insect with red and black marking”s.

3. The rostrum is four segmented.

4. Mouth parts piercing sucking

Economic importance

The pyrrhoeoridaes are saprophagous.The red cotton bug,both adult and nymph suck the sap from tender of the plants and bolls.

Family-Coreidae/Alydidae

Character

1. The coreid bugs are generally medium to large insects

2. Head narrower and shorter than the pronotum.

3. Antenna four segmented.

4. Mouth parts piercing sucking.

Economic importantance

The nymph and adult suck sap from the tender stem,peduncle and milky grain.They suck milky sap from the developing grains of rice by insering the proboscis.

Family-Scutelleridae

Character

1. The scurtellum is very large and extended to the apex of the abdomen.

2. MPs piercing sucking.

3. Brilliant colour insect.

4. Antenna 4 segmented.

Economic importance

They are phytophagous and major pest of bringal.

Family-Pentatomidae

Character

1. They are moderate to large siged insects.

2. Antenna 5 segmented

3. Scutellum triangular in shape.

4. Tarsi 5 segmented.

5. Stunk gland present on the thorax.

6. MPs piercing sucking.

Economic importance

Peutatorids are phytophagous and predaceous in habit.

Family-Belostomatidae

Character

1. Very large in size brown colour insect.

2. Body oval and somewhat flattened.

3. Hind leg modified for swimming and four legs with sharp claw and modified for grasping.

4. Aquatic in habitat.

Economic importance

These bug occur in plants and lakes and predaceous other small insects, fishes, tadpoles etc.

Family-Nabidae

Character

1. They have slender bodies and are about 8-12 mm long with tan or grayish brown in colour.

2. MPs piercing sucking.

3. Four legs enlarge and modified for grasping their prey.

4. Antenna 4 segmented.

5. Nymph resembles adults, except they are smaller and have no wing.

Economic importance

Damsel bug are predaceous, agricultural pest. These bugs catch and hold prey with their fore legs, similar to mautids. Adults and nymphs feed on many soft bodied insects including aphids, spider, mite, leaf hopper and small caterpillars. Adult are suift and aggressive and rapidly suck the body couteuts from their prey.

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Dictyoptera

Family- blattidae

1. Character

2. Their body length of around 40 mm (1.6 inch)

3. They are reddish brown & have yellowish margin on the body region behind the head

4. Leg with conspicuous hair & eye pattern on their thorax

5. Antenna long & yellow edges on the front part of fore wing

6. Cerci long & jointed 18-19 segments in male & 13-14 segments on female

7. A pair of style present between the cerci in male

Economic importance

They are omnivorous. They are known as pest in home holds. They transmitted diseases when they occur in house & restaurants. They can contaminate food & must be controlled

Family-mantidae

Character

1. Prothorax is commonly elongated & flexibly articulated allowing for greater range of movement of the front limb. Permitting nearly 300 degrees of movement

2. Fore leg modified for grasping or raptorial

3. Front tibia with true apical hook, tarsus articulating laterally at the base

4. Hind wing with one simple vein increase between lobe & anterior part

5. Body & elytra green in colour

6. Eyes slightly cone shaped but blunt

Economic importance

They are predator or predaceous in habit & feed on small insects. Such as aphid flies & some hymenoptera insect

Alius-one, duo- Two, Treies – Three, Quattuor-four, Quinque –five, Sex- Six, Septem- seven

Norem-nine, Octo- Eight, Decen-Ten, Viginti-Twenty

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Order-homoptera

Any insect of the order homoptera with wing of a uniform texture. Order homoptera may divide into two suborder-Coleorrlynche and Auchenorrhynche.

Coleo- Sheeth.

Wing present under the sheeth on wing covered with sheeth.

Suborder –Coleorrhynche

Origin of beahat anterior ventral extremity of face propleure form a sheeth for base of beak .Hind wings absent .Fore wing held flat over abdomen when at rest. No flight function prothorax with paranota digestive trect lacks filter chambers. No sound producing organ present.

Suborder-Auchenorrhyncha

Beek arise at antero ventral extremity of the face, not sheathed by propleure antenna with 1-3 basal segments with terminal seta, fore wing roof like when at rest. Fiter chamber present at digestive tract all male apparently produce sound.

Order-Lepidoptera

Character

1. Size very small to very large.

2. Body fuzzy, smooth and covered with overlapping scale.

3. Antenna clavate in butterfly, filiform or thread like in moth.

4. MPs siphoning in adult and chewing in large in larva siphoning is long and coiled.

5. Wing membranous and covered densely with scale.

6. Leg 3 pairs and found some modification.’

7. Metamorphosis complete.

8. Larva is caterpillar.

Economic importance

Adult insect act as pollinators. The larva of most species is phytophagous. Feeding on cultivated crops, various fabrics and stoned grain on the other hand the larval of few moth and butterfly is on scale insects bugs etc.

Family-Aphididae

Character

1. Soft bodied insect pear shaped.

2. Antenna 6 segmented.

3. Fore wings with 4-6 veins below the darkened stigma

4. Wing membranous Rs vein present in fore wings.

5. Sexual females oviparous and parthenogenetive females viviparous.

6. Without adultant wax gland.

Economic importance

Many species of aphids are serious pests. causing major economic losses by various combination of feeding injury and the vectoring of plant pathogenic virus .cell sap from twig ,branch and leaves .Honey dew a clear liquid secreted from the anus is use as food by ants and many insects.

Family-Coccidae

Character

1. Females flattened,elongates oval.exoskeleton hard ,smooth or wax covered

2. Legs present or absent

3. Antenna absent or much reduced

4. Females often tortoise shaped and males or wingles

5. Anus covered by 2 dorsal plates.

Economic importance

They suck the sap from the bark of plant

Kerridae

Character

1. Females globular inform

2. Always legless

3. Antenna 3 or 4 segmented

4. They are minute & body enclosed in cells of resin

Economic importance

The resinous recreation of the females provides the stick lac & seed lac which has a great commercial value. It is used to made electrical insulator, lipstick, gramophone record & shellac shrllac is also used in jewelry function.

Pseudococeidae

Character

1. Body covered with white powdery secretion

2. Wax gland opening on dorsum

3. Anal ring with four or more setae

4. Dorsal ostioles and usually 1-4 circuli present

Economic importance

They attack a great variety of economically important crops, including coffee, mango, and cotton

Homoptera

Character

1. Mostly small wing when present number 2-4

2. Mouth part sucking type

3. Most are plant feeders more than 32000 species

4. Worldwide distribution

Coleorryncha

Character

1. No sound producing organ present

2. Lack of filter chamber

3. Fore wing held flat over abdomen when rest

4. Propleura form sheath for base of beak

Auhenorrhyncha

Character

1. All male produce sound

2. Filter chamber present

3. Fore wing roof like when rest

4. Not formed sheathed by propleura