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পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ

Assignment

On

SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF POTTERY INDUSTRY

Coerce code: AES-123

Coerce Title: PRINCEPLES OF SOSIOLOGY

Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology

Patuakhali Science and Technology University

DUMKI, Patuakhali-8602

ASSIGNED BY

BODIUZZAMAN

Associate Professor

Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Sociology

Patuakhali Science and Technology University

DUMKI, Patuakhali-8602


SUBMITTED BY

MD. MAMUNUR REZA

ROLL NO: 097

Regi. No: 01304

Season: 2006-’07

B. Sc. Ag (Hons) L-I; S-II

Patuakhali Science and Technology University

DUMKI, Patuakhali-8602

CONTENTS

Introduction…………………………………………………………01

Description

Objectives……………………………………………………...……01

Methodology………………………………………………………...01

Terracotta Art……………………………………………….……….02

Kumar…………………………………………………………...…..02

Pottery……………………………………………………...………..04

Collected data……………………………………………………….05

· Collected data-01

· Collected data-02

· Collected data-03

Conclusion…………………………………………………………..11

Reference………………………………………………………........12

SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF

POTTERY INDUSTRY

Introduction:

We are the student of Patuakhali Science and Technology University in B.Sc.Ag (Hons.) in Agriculture 8th batch. This assignment (Socio economic evaluation of pottery industry) is the part of AES-123.Our course title is Principles of Sociology. Pottery is one Kind of national tradition in Bangladesh. But it is neglected in our country from the paste. For this reason our course teacher and instructor Mr. Badiuzzaman gave us an assignment about pottery society. Our course teacher and instructor seleact a locatio name Baufal under the Baufal plice station in Patuakhali district and Barisal division.

Description

Objectives:

I. To asses the socio economic status of the pottery industries people.

II. To asses the determine the profitability of the farm.

III. To see the marketing channel.

Methodology:

We collect samples from 33 people in 11 groups.Each group collect 3 samples. We collect their Union:, Village: Post office,Plice station, Dist. and Division with their family memer and educational level.

We discuss about this assignment with our course teacher and instructor ,group member and do library work.

Collected data are given below:

Terracotta Art is the earliest form of plastic art in which the Bengal artists excelled. The art products in terracotta or burnt clay satisfied the creative impulse of the artists and also met the domestic and ritual needs of ordinary man. Clay objects were either baked in the sun or burnt into terracotta for hardening and durability and were used by man in his daily life since pre-historic times.

Due to paucity of stone and the complex technology involved in metal sculpture, the artistic desire of Bengali artists found expression in clay, which was abundantly available, and it hardly involved either any complex technical know-how or any heavy financial involvement. Thousands of untutored artists produced innumerable terracotta objects from pre-historic time (pandu rajar dhibi). The abundant finds of objects made of terracotta in Bengal is a sure evidence of the use of clay as a most common and popular medium of art expression of the people from the very dawn of civilisation in this deltaic land.

The art was practised in Bengal from the earliest through early medieval to medieval times and even persisted on Hindu monuments till the mid-nineteenth century. The art is noticed in all forms - small clay figurines, clay sculptures in the round, but the most notable ones are the plaques. Terracotta panels and friezes, used as surface decoration on brick buildings, are Bengal's remarkable contributions to the sum-total of South Asian art.

Kumar (potter) also known in Bangla as kumbhakar, is a traditional occupational group engaged in clay modelling and making earthenwares and various household items and toys from clay. Kumar is a caste name, which indicates that pottery as a profession was almost exclusively in the hands of Hindus in the past. The innumerable domestic wares prepared by kumars include kalshi (household water vessel), handi (cooking pot), jala (big water jar), shara/dhakna (pot covers), shanki (dish), sharai (jug), plates, cups, badna (water pot) and dhupdani (vessel for scented sulphur). Clay made toys and clay fruits like palm, banana, jackfruit or mango, are popular sale items in traditional fairs and festivals.

All kumars, whether of ancient or modern times, employ a simple technology in making the earthenware. The clay dug from the earth's surface is prepared by beating and kneading with the hands, feet or simple mallets of stone or wood.

http://localhost:1061/Images/Kumar.jpg

A Kumar at work, Boaga, Baufal

The steps usually followed include: (1) clay collection and preservation, (2) preparing the clay for production, (3) modelling the shape and size of the wares, (4) drying the ware in the sun and finally, (5) firing and colouring it. In ancient pottery, the clay well tempered with water was invariably used without any additional material. Vessels were shaped by scooping out or cutting a solid lump or ball from this pure clay, by building up piece by piece, or by squeezing cakes of clay on to some natural object or a mould or form. The potter's wheel (chak) is a comparatively later invention. Kumars now use wheel with which they fashion various kinds of pottery, which then dried in the sun and later are heated in the kiln (panja). The wheel in its simplest form is a heavy disk pivoted in a central point to be set going by the hand of the workman squatting on the ground. After the processing in rotation is complete, the piece is removed from the wheel and set aside to dry. The neck and shoulders of all globular vessels are made with the wheel, but the body is fashioned by hand, often by women. A round ball of hardened clay (boila) is held inside, while with a wooden mallet (pitna) the material is beaten from the outside into requisite shape and thinness.

Kumars use two kinds of earth: bali (sandy soil) and kalamati (blackish sticky soil). The former is mixed with the latter in a proportion of 1:2 for production of strong pottery. The red laterite earth from Bhowal is used for making the common red earthenware vessels. The cheap red and black earthenware are both prepared with the same clay, the latter being blackened by covering up the kiln at a certain stage and by adding oil-cake to the fire. Many potters cannot glaze or fix the colours on the wares, but are content to paint the vessel after it has been baked. The colours are always made from different chemicals and metals such as copper, manganese, lead, arsenic etc. Red paint are prepared with red leads, yellow with arsenic, green by copper, blue from manganese, and black with the mixture of different chemicals.

Many kumars manufacture bricks and tiles, along with earthenware of all shapes and sizes, and idols and toys. The manufactories of kumars well repay a visit. Beneath the same thatched roof are the kiln, storehouse and dwelling house, while a free space in front of the door is used as a place to prepare the clay. The pottery made at Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Comilla, Faridpur and Bogra is well known throughout the country for its fineness. In the rainy season boats laden with earthenware from these places travel to neighbouring districts through river ways.

The subdivisions within the kumar caste in Bengal include Bara Bhagiya, Chota Bhagiya, Rajmahalia and Khatya. Historically, Vaishnava has been the favourite deity of the caste. Their religious observances do not appear to differ materially from those of other Hindu castes of similar social standing. The social standing of the caste is respectable. They are recognised as members of the Navashaka group and brahmans would drink water from their hands. The profession of kumars run through family lineage and both women and men work together.

Pottery appeared in Bengal, in all probability, in or around 1500 BC. In an alluvial country like Bengal, fine clay is a distinctive geological feature. The ancient inhabitants of the region exploited this natural resource for making numerous potteries. Archaeological sites, such as pandu rajar dhibi, mahisdal, Bharatpur, Mangalkot, chandraketugarh, tamralipti, rajbadidanga, Harinarayanpur and Bangarh of West Bengal and mahasthangarh, govinda bhita, bhasu vihara, wari-bateshwar, Raja Harish Chandrer Badi, mainamati and paharpur of Bangladesh have produced varieties potsherds/potteries, namely Black-and-red Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware, Rouletted Ware, Amphorae, Black-slipped Ware, Knobbed Ware etc. While the potteries from the Chalcolithic and the early historic sites have diagnostic characteristics, the early medieval, medieval and late medieval potteries do not; since in later period metal and other utensils replaced traditional potteries used as utensils and for everyday religious and other household purposes.

COLLECTED DATA

ON

SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF POTTERY INDUSTRY

Potter No: 01

01 .Name of the respondent: Gonesh Chandra Pal

02. Father’s name: Mohon Chandra Pal

03. Address:

Union: Boaga Village: Rajnagor Post: Boaga

Thana: Baufal District: Patuakhali Division: Barisal

04. Age: 31

05. Education: Secondary (High School)

06. Secondary Occupation: None

07. Family type: Joint Family

Then the number: 11; a) Male: 6 b) Female: 5

08. Land Property (amount):

09. Religion: Hindu (pal)

10. Occupation: Potter industry

Economic Situation

01.Input:

Soil, wood, Straw, Water, Wheel, Red Oxide, White Oxide, Red soil, Soda, Catecha etc.

02.Input Cost:

Soil=14Tk/Mon

Wood=40 Tk. /Mon

Straw=40 Tk /Kara

Wheel=500 Tk. /pcs

Dye=100 Tk. /Kg

Red soil, Soda=145 Tk. /Kg

Catecha=120 Tk. /Kg

02.Labour Cost=200 Tk. /labour/day

03.Payment mode=Weakly or monthly

04.Revenue:

Quality of output in different types:

Sl. No:

Item

Sales price

Cost

01

Jar

07Tk. /pcs

04Taka

02

Top

05 Tk. /pcs

03 Taka

03

Pot

08 Tk. /pcs

05 Taka

04

Doll

10 Tk. /pcs

04 Taka

05

Vase

20 Tk. /pcs

10 Taka

06

Ornament

25 Tk. /pcs

10 Taka

07

Showpiece

15 Tk. /pcs

05 Taka

08

Earthen lidor cap

05 Tk. /pcs

03 Taka

09

Bank

04 Tk. /pcs

02 Taka

10

Gremin Bank

25 Tk. /pcs

08 Taka

COLLECTED DATA

ON

SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF POTTERY INDUSTRY

Potter No: 02

01 .Name of the respondent: Mithun Chandra Pal

02. Father’s name: Palash Chandra Pal

03. Address:

Union: Boaga Village: Rajnagor Post: Boaga

Thana: Baufal District: Patuakhali Division: Barisal

04. Age: 36

05. Education: Primary

06. Family type: Joint Family

Then the number: 13; a) Male: 6 b) Female: 7

07. Land Property (amount):

08. Religion: Hindu (pal)

09. Occupation: Potter industry

10. Secondary Occupation: Farming

Economic Situation

01.Input:

Soil, wood, Straw, Water, Wheel, Red Oxide, White Oxide, Red soil, Soda, Catecha etc.

02.Input Cost:

Soil=15Tk/Mon

Wood=45 Tk. /Mon

Straw=35k. /Kara

Wheel=500 Tk. /pcs

Dye=100 Tk. /Kg

Red soil, Soda=145 Tk. /Kg

Catecha=120 Tk. /Kg

02.Labour Cost=200 Tk. /labour/day

03.Payment mode=Weakly or monthly

04.Revenue:

Quality of output in different types:

Sl. No:

Item

Sales price

Cost

01

Jar

08Tk. /pcs

04Taka

02

Top

06Tk. /pcs

03 Taka

03

Pot

12 Tk. /pcs

07 Taka

04

Doll

10 Tk. /pcs

04 Taka

05

Vase

20 Tk. /pcs

10 Taka

06

Toy

15 Tk. /pcs

07 Taka

07

Seed Pot

02 Tk. /pcs

01 Taka

COLLECTED DATA

ON

SOCIO ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF POTTERY INDUSTRY

Potter No: 03

01 .Name of the respondent: Sathi Rani Pal

02. Father’s name: Romesh Chandra Pal

03. Address:

Union: Boaga Village: Rajnagor Post: Boaga

Thana: Baufal District: Patuakhali Division: Barisal

04. Age: 28

05. Education: Secondary (High School)

06. Secondary Occupation: None

07. Family type: Joint Family

Then the number: 12; a) Male: 6 b) Female: 6

08. Land Property (amount):

09. Religion: Hindu (pal)

10. Occupation: Potter industry

Economic Situation

01.Input:

Soil, wood, Straw, Water, Wheel, Red Oxide, White Oxide, Red soil, Soda, Catecha etc.

02.Input Cost:

Soil=14Tk/Mon

Wood=40 Tk. /Mon

Straw=40 Tk /Kara

Wheel=500 Tk. /pcs

Dye=100 Tk. /Kg

Red soil, Soda=145 Tk. /Kg

Catecha=120 Tk. /Kg

02.Labour Cost=200 Tk. /labour/day

03.Payment mode=Weakly or monthly

04.Revenue:

Quality of output in different types:

Sl. No:

Item

Sales price

Cost

01

Doll

10 Tk. /pcs

04 Taka

02

Ornament

25 Tk. /pcs

10 Taka

03

Bank

04 Tk. /pcs

02 Taka

04

Top

05 Tk. /pcs

03 Taka

05

Pot

08 Tk. /pcs

05 Taka

06

Showpiece

15 Tk. /pcs

05 Taka

07

Vase

20 Tk. /pcs

10 Taka

08

Earthen lidor cap

05 Tk. /pcs

03 Taka

09




10




Conclusion:

Pottery points to the existence of clay work in the country. Earthenware and utensils found in different old terracotta point to the existence of superb quality pottery in olden times. Pottery adorned with artistic subtly and creative design has made their way into art exhibitions and museums. With the passage of time, the development of wares of other materials ie, plastic and metal wares brought changes in the usage of pottery. In the rural areas only the poor use rudimentary and cheap earthenware while opulent members in urban areas use pottery as show pieces in drawing rooms or as items of interior decoration. But we should save this art. Our govt. & NGO should give more concentration in this subject now and from today.

Reference:

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